World harvest of farmed marine shrimp in 1999 was 814,250 MT Thailand – 200,000 MT China – 110,000 MT Indonesia – 100,000 MT Ecuador – 85,000 MT India – 70,000 MT
Shrimp Gee-Whiz • Shrimp, crabs, lobsters and crayfish all decapods (they have 10 feet) • Hundreds of spp. found in brackish and marine • All farm-raised shrimp and most of the shrimp caught by fishermen belong to the Penaeidae family of decapod crustaceans and are referred to as "penaeids".
Gulf Shrimp Identification • Brown • Groove on either side of spine on back of head • Similar groove on the last body segment before the tail segment (A) • Pink • Groove on either side of spine on back of head • Similar groove on the last body segment before the tail segment • Dark or pinkish blotch on each side of body between carapace and tail (B) • White • No grooves on spine or last segment before tail (C)
Penaeid Shrimp Life Cycle Shrimp have a maximum life span of about 24 months.
Larval Staging • Penaeid Shrimp pass through three larval stages • Nauplii • Zoeal • Mysis • Postlarval (PL) follows larval stages • Look like shrimp by this stage
Nauplii Stage • Six sub-stages • May lose 25% • Nauplii sub-stages take approximately 48 hours • 36-51 hour range depending on temperature • Begin feeding at N6
Zoeal Stage • Zoea feed on phytoplankton • Three zoeal substages • 120 hrs • 36-48 hrs per stage
Mysis Stage • Look like adult shrimp • Begin to swim backwards • Three sub-stages • Each last 24 hrs
Post Larvae • Postlarvae (PL) • PL1: one day PL • 0.0008 g/PL1 • PL 20: 20 day PL • 0.02 g/PL20 • Swimming seta present on pleopods • Reared in tanks or raceways • Stocked in ponds beginning around PL15-PL20.
Larval FeedingZoea • Isochrysis • Brown algae • (3-5 mm) • Chaetoceros • Diatom • (4-6 mm) • Tetraselmis • Green algae • (10-15 mm) Isochrysis Chaetoceros Tetraselmis
Larval FeedingMysis • Feed large algae cells early on • Switch to artemia (brine shrimp) for later stages
Larval FeedingPostlarvae • Artemia • 6/ml at PL4 decreasing to 0 by PL11 • Formulated diet • 35% protein • 3% fat • Feeding rate • 200% bwt/day • 50% X 4 times per day
General Shrimp Farming Concepts • Marine shrimp are grown in earthen ponds located in coastal areas of countries with tropical and subtropical climates. • Ponds are filled with saltwater pumped from estuaries and oceans. Small shrimp reproduced and raised in captivity are stocked into the ponds and are ready for harvest in 90 to 120 days.
Farm Location • Locate ponds close to good quality brackish water • 5-30 ppt • Farms can be inland if suitable aquifers are available • Soil should have high clay content • 25% • Water table should not be within three feet of surface
Farm Permits • Construction permits from Corps of Engineers • Aquaculture Permits from state • Local permits
Farming Strategies • Extensive • Large ponds • Low stocking densities • Little management or investment • Semi-Intensive • Falls in between the two extreme of intensive and extensive • Intensive • Smaller ponds • Aeration • High stocking densities • Feeding
Ponds range in size from 1-10 acres 4-7 feet deep Gentle bottom slope Well maintained levee Pond Construction
Gulf and Inland Shrimp Species • Food • Western white shrimp • Penaeus vannamei • Northern white shrimp • Litopenaeus setiferus • Freshwater shrimp • Macrobrachium spp. • Bait • Brown shrimp • Farfantepenaeus aztecus
Stocking • Stock with post larval shrimp (PL) • ½ inch in length • Stock 40,000-80,000 PLs per acre • Havest 3,000lbs/acrea
Management • Fertilize ponds prior to stocking • Feed good quality shrimp feed • 35% protein • 3-5% bwt per day • Provide aeration when necessary
Harvest • Harvest in October • 22-36 count • Drain and seine ponds • Direct market or sell to processor
Common Problems • Shortage of PLs • Shrimp viruses
Commonly Cultured Marine Shrimp • Penaeus merguiensis – Banana prawn • Penaeus indicus – Indian prawn • Penaeus japonicus - Kuruma prawn • Penaeus duorarum – Atlantic pink shrimp • Penaeus aztecus – Atlantic brown shrimp • Penaeus setiferous – Atlantic white shrimp • Litopenaeus vannamei – Pacific white shrimp • Penaeus monodon – Black tiger prawn
Shrimp Species • Giant Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) • Named for its huge size and banded tail, P. monodon still accounts for most of the farmed shrimp coming out of Asia, but it's likely to lose that position to P. vannamei over the next couple of years. • Native to the Indian Ocean and the southwestern Pacific Ocean from Japan to Australia, "tigers" are the largest (maximum length 363 mm) and fastest growing of the farmed shrimp. • They tolerate a wide range of salinities, but shortages of wild broodstock often exist, captive breeding is difficult and hatchery survivals are low (20 to 30%). Tigers are very susceptible to two of the most lethal shrimp viruses: yellowhead and whitespot. • Reddish-orange on the sides and pearly-white on the top and bottom
Shrimp Species • Western White Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) • Native to the Pacific coast of Central and South America, • Leading farm-raised species in the Western Hemisphere, representing more than 95% of production. • Because vannamei feeds on organisms which grow naturally in the pond, it is cheaper to feed than monodon. • White shrimp can be stocked at small sizes, have a uniform growth rate and reach a maximum length of 230 millimeters. • They breed in captivity better than monodon • Hatchery survivals are high, from 50 to 60%. Throughout Latin America, hatcheries maintain captive stocks of vannamei broodstock. • Look for it to become the dominant species in Asia over the next couple of years.
Shrimp Species • Chinese White Shrimp (Penaeus chinensis) • Native to the coast of China and the west coast of the Korean peninsula. • Chinese white shrimp grow better in lower water temperatures (down to 16 degrees Celsius) than vannamei and monodon • Tolerate muddy bottoms and very low salinities—and, unlike the above species, Chinese white shrimp readily mature and spawn in ponds. • On the negative side, they have a high protein requirement (40 to 60%), a small size (maximum length of 183 millimeters), and a lower meat yield (56%) than monodon (61%) and vannamei (63%). • Also, chinensis appears to be more susceptible to viruses than vannamei.
Shrimp Species • Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium spp.) • World production of farmed prawns has risen to around 200,000 metric tons, worth about a billion dollars, most of it from Bangladesh and China. • The genus Macrobrachium, which includes about 200 species, almost all of which live in freshwater for at least part of their life cycle, native to all continents except Europe. • The favored species for farming has always been M. rosenbergii, sometimes called the "giant river prawn" or the "Malaysian prawn • In the United States, there are more than 500 small freshwater prawn farms (M. rosenbergii). • Resemble giant tiger shrimp, but they're bigger, chunkier, lighter in color, and their shells are always on. • If the bottom part of the shell on the second tail segment overlaps the shell on the first and third segments, it's a freshwater prawn.
Shrimp... • Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) • Found in Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico • Most abundant of the three Gulf Shrimp • Closely related to the pink shrimp • The brown shrimp is found in murkier and often deeper water. • Spawn offshore from November to April. • Young adults move out of protected marsh areas from May to July. • Excellent bait species candidate!
More Species • White (Atlantic) shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) • Found in Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico • Second most harvested species in the three Gulf Shrimp • The white shrimp is generally found in waters that are muddier, shallower, and less salty than waters where pink shrimp and brown shrimp live • Spawn offshore from March to October • Juvenile whites tolerate low salinity better than browns • Young adults migrate offshore from July to November
Shrimp Species • Pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) • Found in Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico • Least abundant of the three Gulf Shrimp • This species generally lives in clear waters. • Spawn offshore from May through November • Migrate out of marshes from April to September
Broodstock Performance • 40 g females, 35 g males • Daily spawning rate (natural mating), • As a % of the total female population: 5-8%/day • Egg Production: 200-250,000 per female per spawn. • Nauplii production: 100-150,000 per female per spawn. • Useful productive life of the broodstock: 3-6 months • Total spawns per female during her useful life: 10-15
Specific Pathogen Free • White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) • Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) • Yellow Head Virus (YHV) • IHHN Virus (IHHNV) • MBV • BP/MBV • HPV • NHP • Gregarines • Microsporidians • Haplosporidians
Pond Design • 1 to 25 A in size • Silt soil • Good water source • Saline well • Pumped from ocean • Hauled from ocean • Rectangular in shape
Water Quality for Growout Ponds • Temperature: > 68F • Salinity: 0.5 - 35 ppt • Dissolved Oxygen: > 5 ppm • pH: 7.0 – 8.3 • Unionized Ammonia: < 0.01 ppm • Nitrite: < 1.0 ppm • Nitrate: < 60 ppm
Potential Pond Production • 1500-3000 lbs/A • Low salinity 0 – 2000 lbs/A (Mean 650 lbs/A) • Mean individual weights should range between 15-30g • 80 + % survival • Feed conversion 2:1
Marketing Shrimp • Price ranges from $1-4/lb heads on or $4-10/lb tails (Size dependant) • Sell to wholesaler • Process • Remove head • HACCP certification required • Market IQF or block frozen product