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Software Reviews

Software Quality Assurance. Software Reviews. Outline. Reviews Desk Checks Buddy Checking Walkthroughs Inspections Fagan Inspection Gilb Inspection. Origin. The initial idea was proposed by Gerry Weinberg in 1970s (in his book “The Psychology of Computer Programming”).

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Software Reviews

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  1. Software Quality Assurance Software Reviews

  2. Outline • Reviews • Desk Checks • Buddy Checking • Walkthroughs • Inspections • Fagan Inspection • Gilb Inspection Software Reviews

  3. Origin • The initial idea was proposed by Gerry Weinberg in 1970s (in his book “The Psychology of Computer Programming”). • Michael Fagan: Fagan Inspection (IBM Corporation 76). • Gilb and Graham in 93 expanded the Inspection process. Software Reviews

  4. Reviews • A process or meeting during which a work product, or a set of work products, is presented to project personnel, managers, users, customers, or other interested parties for comment or approval. (IEEE) Software Reviews

  5. Reviews • A technical assessment of a work product created during the software engineering process. • A meeting conducted by technical people for technical people to evaluate a work product. Software Reviews

  6. Why Reviews? • To err is human. • Lots of errors escape the originator more easily than anyone else. • Reviews are educational. Software Reviews

  7. Purpose of Reviews • The primary function is to use the skill of a group of people to: • Identify needed improvements • Certify correctness • Encourage uniformity • Enforce subjective rules Software Reviews

  8. Other Objectives of Reviews • The secondary functions of reviews include: • Communication • Milestone • Visibility to management Software Reviews

  9. Types of Reviews • Desk Checks • Buddy Checking • Walkthroughs • Inspections Software Reviews

  10. Software Quality Assurance Desk Checks

  11. Desk Checks • Reviewing your own work. • The intention is to find the defects by the creator himself/herself. • Checklists can be helpful. • Code Reviews, Design Reviews are examples of Desk Checks. Software Reviews

  12. Software Quality Assurance Buddy Checking

  13. Buddy Checking • A person other than the author informally review a piece of work. • Generally does not require collection of data. • Difficult to put under managerial control • Generally does not involve the use of checklists to guide inspection and is therefore not repeatable. Software Reviews

  14. Software Quality Assurance Walkthroughs

  15. Walkthroughs • Author of an artifact presenting a document or program to an audience of their peers. • The audience asks questions and makes comments on the artifact being presented in an attempt to identify defects. • Often break down into arguments about an issue. • Also known as “Team Debugging” or “Peer Reviews”. Software Reviews

  16. Walkthroughs • Minimal documentation of the process and of the issues found. • Process improvement and defect tracking are therefore not easy. • More work for presenter. • May be difficult to control interactions. • No prior preparation on behalf of the audience. Software Reviews

  17. Software Quality Assurance Inspections

  18. Inspections • A formal evaluation technique in which software requirements, design or code are examined in detail by a person or group other than the author to detect faults, violations of development standards, and other problems. (IEEE) • A highly structured, clearly defined process by which software documents are reviewed in detail by a team including the author and, ideally, the customer. Software Reviews

  19. Inspections • Formally structured and managed peer review processes. • Involve a review team with clearly defined roles. • Specific data is collected during inspections. • Inspections have quantitative goals set . Software Reviews

  20. Inspections Rolls • Inspection Leader / Moderator • Author / Producer • Inspector / Reviewer • Recorder / Scribe * IEEE-1028-1997 establishes five rolls for the Inspection. Software Reviews

  21. Inspections Team: Moderator • Manages the entire Process • Manages the inspection meeting • Discussion leader? Facilitator? • Controls order of participation • Is technically competent. • Stimulates participation of all team members. • Consensus driver (defect, and where, or ...) • Ensures that team follows inspection process. Software Reviews

  22. Inspections Team: Author • Originator of work product being inspected • Has vested interest in ensuring that all defects are found. • Provides inspection team with overview of work product. • Actively participates in Inspection Meeting. • Confirms reader and tester understanding. Software Reviews

  23. Inspections Team: Reviewer • Recipient of work product being inspected • Obtains complete understanding of the document • Determines the path to be followed through the document • Paraphrases and interprets the document Software Reviews

  24. Rules for Reviewers • Be prepared • Evaluate product, not people. • Watch your language. • When you are shown to be wrong, forget it • Raise issues, don’t resolve them. • Record all issues in public. • Stick to technical issues. Software Reviews

  25. Inspections Team: Recorder • Provide info for accurate report of review. • Short, public notes. • Capture essence of each issue. • Must ensure group has reached conclusion. • Don’t video tape. Software Reviews

  26. Inspection Constraints • Maximum time allotted for the inspection meeting is 2 hours • Over and above the four roles described, two additional “INSPECTORS” may participate; all must prepare and participate, usually as • Reader (perhaps diagram interpreter) • Tester (with special focus) • Maximum of 6 participants allowed in inspection meeting. • Management is not invited. Software Reviews

  27. Software Quality Assurance Fagan Inspections

  28. Fagan Inspections • Michael Fagan divided the inspection process into seven steps: • Planning • Overview • Preparation • Inspection • Inspection Analysis • Rework and • Follow-up Software Reviews

  29. Meets Entry Criteria for Inspection? Yes Planning Overview Seven Step Process as Outlined by Fagan Preparation Inspection Defect Log Summary Report Inspection Analysis Process Improvement Recommendations Rework No Meets Exit Criteria for the work? Yes Follow-Up Summary Report Fagan Inspections Software Reviews

  30. The Seven Step Inspection Process • Planning • Materials meet inspection entry criteria • Assign Inspector roles • Schedule meeting time/place for steps 2, 4 & 5 • Overview • Educate inspection team. Provide work product background, context, rationale, etc. • Preparation • Prepare to fulfill role • Completely understand document from role's perspective • Inspection • Identify, classify and record defects • No solutions or improvements Software Reviews

  31. The Seven Step Inspection Process • Inspection Analysis • Review/analyze inspection steps 1 - 5 for improvement • Identify defect causes • Recommend process improvements • Rework • Correct ALL defects • Follow-up • Ensure all defects identified are corrected • Ensure no new defects are introduced Software Reviews

  32. Inspection Process & People Software Reviews

  33. Software Quality Assurance Gilb and Graham Inspection

  34. Gilb and Graham Inspection • Gilb and Graham [GilbGraham93] divide inspection process into the following inspection steps: • Entry • Planning • Kickoff Meeting • Individual Checking • Logging Meeting • Edit • Follow Up • Exit Software Reviews

  35. Work Product Change Request Planning Process Improvement Source Checklists ENTRY EX I T Kickoff Individual Checking Logging Meeting Edit and Follow-up Inspected Work Product Inspection Process Gilb and Graham Inspection Process Software Reviews

  36. Gilb Inspection: Entry • The author of the artifact requests that it be inspected. • The artifact to be inspected is checked by the inspection moderator to ensure that certain entry criteria are met. • The primary purpose of this stage is to ensure that inspection time is not wasted on artifacts that contain defects which the author should rightly have found. Software Reviews

  37. Gilb Inspection: Planning • The moderator determines the practical aspects of the inspection. This may include: • Determining the size and composition of the inspection team. • Determining the goals of the inspection. • Determine the timing and purpose of the meetings. Software Reviews

  38. Gilb Inspection: Kickoff Meeting • Roles for the inspection team are assigned and clarified. • Documents, including the artifact, its source document, the inspection checklist, and inspection rules are distributed and checked • The author(s) of the artifact may be required to give a quick walkthrough of the artifact to be inspected and its relation to the other documentation. Software Reviews

  39. Gilb Inspection: Individual Checking • The majority of defects found in inspection processes are found in the individual checking stage. • During this stage an individual reviewer reads the artifact and with the guidance of an inspection checklist attempt to find defects in the artifact. • The reviewer should record any issues found. • Determines the severity of defects and classifies the defects. Software Reviews

  40. Gilb Inspection:Logging Meeting • A planned and moderated meeting with the primary purpose of logging the issues found by the reviewers. • All reviewers should be given a chance to raise their issues as a scribe logs the issues being raised • It is important that an issue is only logged once. • Moderator should ensure that discussion about issues is kept to a minimum in order to maintain the continuity of the meeting. • Some variations of this process include group defect finding as an activity at the end of this meeting Software Reviews

  41. Gilb Inspection: Edit • The editor (usually the author) is responsible for addressing all logged issues in the inspected artifact. • The editor decides if something is a defect or not. • All defects must be corrected. • All non-defects should also be addressed in some way. Software Reviews

  42. Gilb Inspection: Follow Up • Moderator checks that all defects have been addressed. • Moderator must also ensure that any defects found in a source document during inspection are forwarded to the owner of that document for correction. • Moderator may calculate certain metrics in this stage to be analyzed to assess the effectiveness of an inspection. • May also be used to hold a meeting to evaluate and recommend inspection process improvement. Software Reviews

  43. Gilb Inspection: Exit • An inspection will be exit when pre-defined set of inspection exit criteria have been satisfied. Software Reviews

  44. Inspection Entry Criteria • Conforms to standard template • Spell-checked • Layout examined for errors • Reference documents are available • Line numbers included • Open issued marked TBD • Moderator no more than 3 defects in a 10 minute examination of the draft Software Reviews

  45. Inspection Exit Criteria • All issues raised were addressed • Changes made were made correctly • Revised document spell-checked • All TBDs closed • Document “baselined” (entered into configuration management system) Software Reviews

  46. Software Quality Assurance Feel free to ask! Thanks!

  47. Software Quality Assurance Software Reviews

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