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Trench Warfare

Trench Warfare

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Trench Warfare

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  1. Trench Warfare

  2. Western Front: • Home by Christmas turns into a stalemate • Germans were guided by the Schlieffen Plan • General Alfred Graf von Schlieffen • Proposed taking France through Belgium, then focusing on Russia due to its lack of railroad, slow mobilization and superior numbers. • Germans push to take Paris, France but are stopped at the First Battle of the Marne River (Sept 3-9, 1914) • Germans then pushed towards the sea, but were stopped by the British in a series of battles (Masurian Lake, Sept 1914; Ypres, Nov 1914)

  3. After this, trench warfare became the norm. It included: • Flooded trenches, rats, mud, artillery shelling, and lack of sleep and food • Death with the average death count at 6400 per day • No man’s land – Space between opposing trenches • Filled with mines, barbed wire, dead bodies, huge holes from artillery • After days of artillery shelling, troops would go “over the top” of the trenches to attack, often retreat, and then counter attack. • May 1915 – Italy signed a secret treaty to join the Allies, opening up a southern front • Feb. 1916 - Battle of Verdun • Won by the Germans against British and French forces • 600000 men lost for 4 miles gained

  4. July 1916 - Battle of the Somme • Eventually won by the British • 500000 Germans, 600000 Allies men lost for 5 miles gained

  5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ciq9ts02ci4

  6. Western Front 1914 and 1918

  7. Eastern Front

  8. Eastern Front • The front in the east was much longer than that in the west. The theatre of war was roughly delimited by the Baltic Sea in the west and Minsk in the east, and Saint Petersburg in the north and the Black Sea in the south, a distance of more than 1,600 kilometres (990 mi). This had a drastic effect on the nature of the warfare. While World War I on the Western Front developed into trench warfare, the battle lines on the Eastern Front were much more fluid and trenches never truly developed. This was because the greater length of the front ensured that the density of soldiers in the line was lower so the line was easier to break. Once broken, the sparse communication networks made it difficult for the defender to rush reinforcements to the rupture in the line, mounting rapid counteroffensives to seal off any breakthrough. In short, on the Eastern front the side defending did not have the overwhelming advantages it had on the Western front. However, as in the Napoleonic Wars and World War II, Russian forces were familiar with their own ground which provided a natural advantage for the Russian emperor's land forces.

  9. Eastern Front: • Extended from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea • Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austria-Hungarians, and Turks (Ottoman Empire) • 1914 – Armenian Massacre 2 million Christians killed by Turks • August 1914 - Battle of Tannenberg • Germans beat 2 Russian Armies • Russia not industrialized which meant short on food, ammo, clothes, etc. due to Germany’s blockade of Baltic Sea and Ottoman Empire’s blockade of Black Sea

  10. December 1914 - Limanova • 17-day battle where Austria defeats Russia • Fall of 1915 – Bulgaria joins the Central Powers • With the help of German, Bulgaria overruns Serbia • Feb 1915 to Jan 1916 – Battle of Gallipoli • British, Australian, New Zealand and French troops vs. Ottoman Empire, with help from Germany and Austria-Hungary • Allies Retreat losing 250000 troops • Allies wanted Constantinople to open Russia and Austria via the Danube River through the Bosporus and Dardanelles (Black Sea Entrance)

  11. Russian withdrawal from the war • Fall of Czar Nicholas II • Lack of food for population • Lack of victory on the battlefield • March 1917 – March Revolution • Replaced the Czar with a provisional government • Nov.1917 - Communist Revolution • Lead by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin • March 1918 - Treaty of Brest-Litovsk • Peace with Germany • Surrendered about 25% of their land and population to Germany as part of the treaty • Done with the war

  12. War Around the World • Ottoman Turks Empire Joins Central Powers October 1914 • Cut off supplies to Russia through the Dardanelles (strait connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean • Feb 1915 to Jan 1916 – Battle of Gallipoli • British, Australian, New Zealand and French troops vs. Ottoman Empire, with help from Germany and Austria-Hungary • Allies Retreat losing 250000 troops • Allies wanted Constantinople to open Russia and Austria via the Danube River through the Bosporus and Dardanelles (Black Sea Entrance)

  13. War around the World • Ottoman Turks vs. Russia-Caucasus mountains (Turkeys north border) • Armeanians helped Russian Army because did not have same rights. • Ottoman Gov’t used this to deport Armenian population • Armenian genocide between 600,000 and 1.5 million died • Turks and Middle East • Arab Revolt • T.E. Lawrence sent by British to help (Lawrence of Arabia) • Ottoman empire lost a great deal of territory • Map pg. 362 answer question turn in as exit slip