Hearing Impairment (H.I.) Morgan Hartwig and Ally Trudell
Hearing Loss Simulation • Sound in quiet environment with normal hearing • Sound in noisy environment with normal hearing • Sound in quiet with moderate to severe hearing loss • Sound in noise with moderate to severe hearing loss • Sound in quiet with profound hearing loss • Sound in quiet with cochlear implant distortion
Misconceptions (that we will correct) • When a student has a hearing aid or cochlear implant, they are “fixed” and can hear normally. • Over-enunciating words and speaking loudly makes it easier for students to understand. • Sign language and lip reading work for all adults and children with hearing loss and are the preferred methods for communication. • Hearing loss is genetic and occurs at birth or in old age.
Introduction • Hearing impairment occurs when there is an inability for sounds to be transmitted through or interpreted by our brain • Hearing impairment can begin at birth (congenital) or can occur over time (acquired) • Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL): headphones, TVs, video games • Acquired loss can be sudden or progressive • Hearing impairment varies for each person and can differ in severity in each ear • Hearing loss is the most common birth anomaly (3 in 1,000) and occurs in 1 in 10 adults
Types of Hearing Impairment • Sound waves travel to the ear and are interpreted by our brain • Conductive hearing loss vs. Sensorineural hearing loss or mixed hearing loss (both)
Conductive Hearing Loss • Conductive hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with the ear canal, ear drum, middle ear, or ossicles • Sounds are heard much lower than they are heard by others • Can usually be fixed with surgery • Otitis media: ear infection • Ruptured ear drum • Change in air pressure
Sensorineural Hearing Loss • Sensorineural hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with the cochlea or auditory nerve • Permanent hearing loss • Hearing aids and cochlear implants • Cochlear implants bypass damage and send signals straight to auditory nerve • Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder • Genetic disorders (50% of hearing loss) • Head injuries • Complications during pregnancy • Severe illness
Pre-Lingual vs. Post-Lingual Hearing Loss • Pre-Lingual hearing loss can lead to delays in language, communication, and social skills • Low self-image, emotional and behavioral difficulties • ASL and lip reading • Early intervention! • Post-Lingual hearing loss does not require as much modification
Signs of Hearing Loss Does your student… • Ask you to repeat yourself often or get upset at the volume of noises in the classroom? • Develop vocabulary more slowly than their peers? • Have speech that is difficult to understand or that is too loud or too soft? • Often ask for words to be repeated? • Turn on the TV/headphones too loud? • Appear inattentive at school and have trouble learning to read or perform simple mathematics?
Modifications • Eye contact! • Before beginning instruction • Face the student • Speak clearly, but don’t exaggerate • Use body language • Physical contact appropriate when eye contact is not maintained • Establish cue system and routines • Emergency procedures • Parent contact and communication • Student input/feedback regularly
Curricular Accommodations • Technology and Visuals • FM systems: transmitter microphone with speakers or receiver • Voice recognition software • Videos with closed captioning • Beware of “visual pollution” • Written questions and content before instruction • Repeat new material, vocab • Sensitivity to other sight, taste, smell, touch • Location of seat; low traffic areas • Background noise
Teacher Resources • Hearinglosseducation.com • Hearingexchange.com • Hearingaidhelp.com • Jimrodslz.com • Kidshealth.org • Marchofdimes.com • CDC.gov • Childrenshospital.org • Ibilitiy,org • Wvu.edu
References • American Speech-Language Hearing Association Website. http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm April 2011 • Hammes DM, Novak MA, Rotz LA, Willis M, Edmondson DM, Thomas JF. Early identification and the cochlear implant: Critical factors for spoken language development. Ann Otol Rhino Laryngol2002;111:74-78 • Montano, J. (2011, April). Living Well With Hearing Loss. In Hearing Health Magazine. Retrieved April, 2011 • Strategies for Teaching Students with Hearing Impairments. (2007, May). In WVU Teaching Students with Disabilities . Retrieved April, 2011, from http://www.as.wvu.edu/~scidis/hearing.html • Mayer, Richard. Learning and Instruction. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall, 2003
Our Cousins • Morgan’s Uncle Nathan and cousin Caleb • Ally’s cousin Owen hearing for the first time