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MIXED METHOD RESEARCH MMR

MIXED METHOD RESEARCH MMR

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MIXED METHOD RESEARCH MMR

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  1. MIXED METHOD RESEARCHMMR I WAYAN SUSANTO, D.A. SIHASALE DAN SOEMARNO

  2. Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293…… 23/9/2012

  3. PERBANDINGAN Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

  4. PARADIGMA KE TIGA Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

  5. PRAGMATISME Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

  6. RISIKO DALAM MENGGUNAKAN MM Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

  7. TIPOLOGI RISET MM Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

  8. .. Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

  9. PARADIGMA Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

  10. TIPOLOGI RISET MM Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

  11. TUJUANNYA Tujuanintegrasi Tujuan desain MM Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012

  12. Perkembanganselama 20 tahunterakhir • Peningkatanminatdanadvokasitentang MMR • Berkembangnyapemahamantentangapaitu MMR • Berkembangnyadisaindanteknik-teknikinovatif • “The emergence of mixed methods as a third methodological movement in the social and behavioral sciences began during the 1980’s.” (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003: 697) Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  13. Perkembangan MMA “Kombinasimetodekualitatifdankuantitatiftelahsemakinberkembangdalamrisetkesehatanmasyarakat.” (1999) Mentioned several approaches for combining qualitative and quantitative research Advanced considerations for deciding what model to use (literature available, prior studies, realistic design, expertise) Suggested to describe each method thoroughly Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  14. BUKU-BUKU TENTANG MMR Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  15. A New Journal Journals Devoted to Mixed Methods: Fieldwork Quality and Quantity Mixed Method Approaches Editors: John W. Creswell and Abbas Tashakkori Managing Editor: Vicki L. Plano Clark Email: vpc@unlserve.unl.edu Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  16. International Conferences • Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, England, July 21-24, 2008 • Proposed mixed methods conference, Sydney, Australia, 2009 • Discipline conferences with mixed methods papers Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  17. KritikPakar(Creswell, 2007) • Is there a post-positivist leaning to mixed methods? • Howe, K. R. (2004). A critique of experimentalism. Qualitative Inquiry, 10, 42-61. • Giddings, L. S. (2006). Mixed-methods research: Positivism dressed in drag? Journal of Research in Nursing, 11(3), 195-2003. • Holmes, C. A. (2007). Mixed(up) methods, methodology and interpretive frameworks. Contributed paper for the Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, University, July 10-12, 2006. • What are the limits for mixed methods research? • Sale, J. E. M., Lohfeld, L. H., Brazil, K. (2002). Revisiting the quantitative-qualitative debate: Implications for mixed-methods research. Quality and Quantity, 36, 43-53. • Leahey, E. (2007). Convergence and confidentiality? Limits to the implementation of mixed methodology. Social Science Research, 36, 149-158. • Is there a dominant discourse in mixed methods research? • Freshwater, D. (2007). Reading mixed methods research: Contexts for criticism. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), 134-146. Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  18. MMR TIDAK BERBEDA DENGAN METODE LAINNYA IdentifikasiMasalahRiset Kajianliteratur Identifying a purpose and stating questions Views of knowledge Assumptions Collecting data Analyzing and interpreting data Reporting and evaluating the study Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  19. Mixed Methods didalam Designs Experimental research Ethnography Case Study Research Narrative research Qual ----- Quan Qual----- Quan Qual-----Quan Qual---- Quan Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  20. Istilah-istilah yang Populer • Multi-method • Triangulation • Integrated • Combined • Quantitative and qualitative methods • Multi-methodology • Mixed methodology • Mixed-method • Mixed research • Mixed methods Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  21. BAGAIMANA MENCAMPUR-NYA Data Konvergen: Qual Quan Results Connect data: Qual Quan Results Embed the data: Quan data Qual data Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  22. MENGAPA MENCAMPUR ? • Validitas – untuk “menguatkan” data quandan qual. • Offset – offset weaknesses of quan and qual and draw on strengths • Completeness – more comprehensive account that qual or quan alone • Proses – quanmenyediakan outcomes; qualmenjelaskanproses • Eksplanasi – qualdapatmenjelaskanhasil-hasilquanatausebaliknya • Hasil yang tidakdiharapkan – hasil-hasil yang mengherankandarisatusudutpandang, sudutpandang yang lain menjelaskan • Pengembangan Instrument– qualmenggunakaninstrumenyangdirancang • Kredibilitas – keduapendekatanmemperbaikiintegritastemuan • Konteks – qualmenyediakkonteks; quanmenyediakan “general”. • Utilitas – lebihbermanfaatbagipraktisi. Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  23. “Single” Paradigm Ke -3 • Pragmatisme (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003) • Fokuspadapertanyaanpenelitian • Apa “kerja,” konsekwensi • Metode-metode Multiple. • Transformatif (Mertens, 2003) • Transform lives of under represented, marginalized groups • Incorporate this focus into all phases of research Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  24. Perkembangan Designs danTeknik-teknikInovatif PerkembanganPenting • Notation • Typologies • Diagrams of procedures • Complex evaluation models • Reconceptualizing designs • Emergence of innovations in procedures • Unusual blends • Methodological issues • Data analysis techniques • Presentation techniques Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  25. Preliminary Design Considerations (Morse, 1991) quan qual Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  26. Parsimonious Designs (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007) QUANPre-test Data & Results QUANPost-test Data & Results Interpre-tasi qualProcess Intervention QUANData & Results QUALData & Results Interpretasi Concurrent Mixed Methods Designs DisainTriangulasi Disain Embedded Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  27. Sequential Designs - Mixed Methods Designs qualData & Results QUANData & Results Interpretation Following up quanData & Results QUALData & Results Interpretation Building to QUANIntervention Trial Before-interventionqual After-intervention qual Interpretation DesainEksplanatori DisainEksploratori Disain Embedded Sekuensial Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  28. Pemikiranpentingnya ... MM.. • Kombinasimetode-metode yang dapatdipilih • The epistemological and ontological implications of what is chosen • The practicalities of carrying out the research • How the data are going to be brought together (lack of theory?) • Ketegangandiantarapendekatandanmetode-metode

  29. Apakahkitamemahami? • Multiple Method Research Designs (MMRD) • Multi-method designs -1+ method within paradigms • Mixed methods designs -1+ method mixed paradigms • Combining methods – 1+ method, one subsumed to other? • Integrating methods – 1+ method of equal weight? • Triangulasi – outcome dari MMRD?* • Transformasi Data • Mengkuantitatifkan data • Mengkualitatifkan data

  30. Mengapakitalakukan? • Emic and etic understandings? • Multiple research-questions? • Multiple facets or contexts • Multiple of singular-reality? • Mixed phenomena?

  31. Bagaimanakitamelakukannya? • Sequential atau parallel? • Linked atau independent? • Respondent enrolment • Development of research instruments • Time required • Costs – value for money? • Necessary expertise? • Organisasi Tim danKomunikasi.

  32. Penanganan Data • Where’s your theory? How does that help? • Assumptions and presumptions – negotiating a path through/round them • Integration; triangulation; combination? • When are you going to integrate? Have you missed the moment? • Will your audience understand?

  33. Possible tensions? • Metodologis • Differing findings • Unit analisis • Politis • Preferensi / persyaratanaudien • Praktikal • Waktu • Biaya • Umur data.

  34. Arguing for....... MMRIs it the ideal approach?

  35. Memperkuatpemahamantentang: • Multidata-monoanalysis—this is the analysis of both data types (qualitative AND quantitative) using only one analysis type. • This results in: • Only quantitative analysis of your qualitative data , atau • Only qualitative analysis of your quantitative data. • We recommend that you avoid this approach because it is not wise to only analyze your qualitative data quantitatively or only analyze your quantitative data qualitatively. • Multi-faceted nature of all phenomena • Kontextualitas • Dimensi/hubungan Micro-meso-macro • Agensidanstruktur. Diunduhdari: www.sagepub.com/.../notes/Ch19_Lecture.do... …… 26/10/2012

  36. Topik “Kerentanan” = VULNERABILITY • Essentialist approaches • Constructionist approaches • Fixed state/status • Contextual and fluid • An inherent weakness or something managed and negotiated? • Children and vulnerability

  37. PendekatanMetoda Tunggal? • Pendekatan yang manadanmengapa yang itu? • Tidakcukupuntukbeberapatujuantertentu • Mis. Pengembangankebijakan • Cannot elaborate micro-meso-macro interfaces and relationships • Strukturdanagensi • Some presumptions are problematic

  38. MM: Multiple / Mixed Methods • Fenomena Multi-dimensional • Access via different methods derived from an interpretivist stance • Dapatmengkajikontingensidanaspek-aspekdinamik • Draw on emic and etic conceptualisations to plan a strong design for mixed methods • Dapatmengkajihuunganstrukturaldanagensi/structure interfaces

  39. Etika Data SekunderdanPertanyaanRiset • Data sensus • Data nasional • National statistical returns (eg Crime statistics for HO) • Hasil-hasilpenelitian yang dipublikasikan • Surveilokal (data primer) • Local statistics (secondary/primary data) • Data yang terbatastentanganak-anak. • PertanyaanPenelitian • Spesifik (hypotheses) • Determined at start by outside ‘experts’/prior research • Dibatasiolehapa yang tersedia , mis. area; unit analisis.

  40. PERKEMBANGAN LANJUT • Using a mixed methods approach • Interface between micro and macro dimensions of physical safety, distributions of risk, violence • Would need primary data to capture distributions of management strategies

  41. ProsesIntegrasi: • Mengkombinasikan metode/data/analysis sedemikian rupa sehingga: • Mereka membentuk satu kesatuan • Menjaga sifat0sifat paradigmatiknya masing-masing (tidak mencampur-adukkan satu-sama lain) • Menghasilkan kontribusi yang sama nilainya

  42. AlternatifIntegrasi • Monodata-multianalysis—this is the analysis of one type of data using both qualitative and quantitative anslysis. • The logic of this approach is to: • Analyze your data with the standard approach (e.g., qualitative analysis for your qualitative data or quantitative analysis for your quantitative data). • Either qualitative or quantitize one set of data for additional analysis. • Qualitize—transforming quantitative data into qualitative data (e.g., provide names or labels to quantitative characteristics). • Quantitize—transforming qualitative data into quantitative data (e.g., do numerical counts of qualitative categories and themes). • Integrasisejakawalriset • Selamapengumpulan data • MelaluiAnalisis Data • MelaluiInterpretasi • SebagaihasilPresentasi Diunduhdari: www.sagepub.com/.../notes/Ch19_Lecture.do... …… 26/10/2012

  43. MMR: MIXED METHODS RESEARCH MMR: Riset yang menggunakanprosedur –prosedurpelaksanaan yang lazimdigunakandalamrisetkuantitatifdanrisetkualitatif. Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

  44. . MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH. Tujuan The purpose of these studies is usually to inform sponsors about a program they are funding. The sponsors may want a descriptive study  of the program in which the operations and processes are explained and clarified. They may also be interested in an effectiveness study  in which the operations are assessed in relation to organizational goals and targets. Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

  45. . M.M.R. METODE-METODE Masalah-penelitianakanmenentukanpilihandesain, tetapibeberapametodeberikutinidapatdigunakan: Survei Kunjunganlokasi. Wawancara Observasi Questionnaires Data Quantitatif. Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

  46. . MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH. TigaTipeDesain Tigakaraktersitik yang membedakantipe-tipe MMR: Priooritasdiberikanpadapengumpulan data kuantitatifataukualitatif. Sekuenspengumpulan data kuantitatifataukualitatif Teknik-teknikanalisis data yang dipakaiadalahkombinasianalisis data atauanalisis data sendiri-sendiri. Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

  47. . MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH. TigatipeDesain yang lazim: Model QUAL-Quan The exploratory mixed methods design Qualitative data are collected first and are more heavily weighted 2. Model QUAN-Qual The explanatory mixed methods design Quantitative data are collected first and are more heavily weighted 3. Model QUAN-QUAL The triangulation mixed methods design Quantitative and qualitative data are collectedconcurrently and both are weighted equally Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

  48. RISET MULTI-METODE • 10 KarakteristikDesain MM • The title of the research includes terms that suggest more than one method is being used • Mixed methods • Integrated •  Triangular • 2. Quantitative – qualitative • Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used in the study Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

  49. . MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH. Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs 3. The researcher describes the kinds of mixed methods being used 4. The data collection section indicates narrative, numerical, or both types of data are being collected 5. The purpose statement or the research questions indicate the types of methods being used 6. Questions are stated and described for both quantitative and qualitative approaches 7. The researcher indicates these quencing of collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data (i.e., QUAN-Qual, QUAL-Quan, or QUAN-QUAL) 8. The researcher describes both quantitative and qualitative data analysis strategies 9. The writing is balanced in terms of quantitative and qualitative approaches Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

  50. . MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH. Evaluating a Mixed Methods Design Does the study use at least one quantitative and one qualitative research strategy? What were the research questions addressed? Who are the sponsors of the study and what are their expectations? Does the study include a rationale for using a mixed methods design? Does the study include a classification of the type of mixed methods design? Does the study describe the priority given to quantitative and qualitative data collection and the sequence of their use? Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012