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Municipal Solid Waste Management

Municipal Solid Waste Management

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Municipal Solid Waste Management

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  1. Municipal Solid Waste Management Ingrid Håstad Senior Consultant in Waste Management SWECO International ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA

  2. 449 964 km2 Length S – N: 1 572 km Width E – W: 500 km About 9 million inhabitants ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 2

  3. MSWM - Common Situation Oujda, Marocko Uganda But now, situation in Sweden.. ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA

  4. Definition of Waste? • "Any substance or object the holder discards, intends to discard or is required to discard" is WASTE according to the Waste Framework Directive (European Directive (WFD) 2006/12/EC) • Amended by the new WFD (Directive 2008/98/EC, coming into force in December 2010) • Main categories: hazardous and non-hazardous

  5. Swedish (EU) MSW Management Waste Hierarchy Recover energy! ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 5

  6. Swedish MSW ManagementCharacteristics • EU member since Jan 1995 • Well established municipal responsibility for MSW • People accept and comply, we do as we are told! • Producers’ responsibility since 1994 • National ban on landfilling of combustible waste from 2002 and organic waste from 2005 • National environmental targets also for waste • Landfill tax and municipal waste incineration tax ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA

  7. 50% reduction of waste to landfill (excl mining) by base year 1994 Achieved! Only 4% of generated MSW is landfilled Not increase the generated amount of MSW Failed! MSW generation increased +35% from 1994 to 2007 Not yet achieved: Biological treatment >35% of municipal kitchen/food waste and utilise all industrial food waste by 2010, (~10% 2006) Recycling (material, biological treatment) > 50% of municipal waste generated by 2010 (~47% 2006) Recirculation >60% of Phosphorus in sewage sludge by 2015 Swedish Objectives MSW National Environmental Waste Targets ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 7

  8. Swedish WM Responsibilities Supervision: Municipality Env DeptCounty AdmEPA GENERATOR INDUSTRY Separation of waste MUNICIPAL COUNCIL Small batteries (collection) Remaining household waste Kitchen/food waste PRODUCER Packaging Newsprint/paper WEEE Car Tyres Cars Car Batteries Small batteries (treatment) Hazardous Waste to authorised treatment ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 8

  9. Swedish WM Responsibilities Supervision: Municipality Env DeptCounty AdmEPA GENERATOR Household Separation of MSW MUNICIPAL COUNCIL Hazardous Waste Small batteries (collection) Remaining household waste Kitchen/food waste PRODUCER Packaging Newsprint/paper WEEE Car Tyres Cars Car Batteries Small batteries (treatment) ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 9

  10. Ban, Incentives, Control, Awareness! Economical and physical Producer’s responsibility (1994) for several products Environmental Code - enforcement Stringent regulations on landfills and other waste treatment facilities National Ban on landfilling of combustible waste since 2002 National Ban on landfilling of organic waste since 2005 and… How to Reach the Objectives? ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 10

  11. Ban, Incentive, Control, Awareness! Cont. How to Reach the Objectives? 62 USD/ton +VAT 25%! ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 11

  12. How to Reach the Objectives?Ban, Incentives, Control, Awareness!Cont. • Requirements for internal control for operators • Investment Grants for biological treatment – biogas production • Public awareness campaigns – environmental programs in school curricula

  13. Public Awareness – separation at source How to Reach the Objectives? • Motivation – why? • Information – how? • Incentive – how much? Västerås stad ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 13

  14. Separated recyclables Producers’ responsibility Collection of Waste from Households Hazardous waste collection, Public recycling centre Municipality responsibility Remaining MSW Municipality responsibility Public participation is crucial! ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 14

  15. Collection of Waste from Enterprises ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 15

  16. Separation at Source – The Corner Stone! Always store/collect hazardous waste, chemicals, batteries, WEEE separate! Leave your recyclables at public drop-off/recycling centres! Biodegradable, landfill, inert …according to local instructions Remaining waste is incinerated to recover energy for district heating, el. A very small amount is disposed in controlled landfill ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 16

  17. HW is ALWAYS separated at source to prevent uncontrolled release of hazardous components into the environment during treatment and disposal to enable recycling, incineration and biological treatment Hazardous Waste - Golden Rule ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 17

  18. Manned HW Collection – Petrol Stations ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 18

  19. HW Mobile Collection Vehicle ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 19

  20. Producers’ Collection of Recyclables HD-Plastic Corrugated cardboard/carton Newsprint Metal Uncoulored glass Coulored glass ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 20

  21. Public Recycling Centres ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 21

  22. Remaining MSW is Collected 2-4 times/month Mainly bins 190-240 l ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 22

  23. Remaining MSW in Large Containers Vacuum waste collection/Envac Underground big bag/Molok Underground Compactor/Ecosir ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 23

  24. MSW Collection City of Stockholm (800 000 inhabitants - example: • Contracts 80-85 MSW collection vehicles, whereof 30 are CBG fuelled • Collects 228 000 tonnes MSW/year • ≈ 10 t/vehicle and day, five days per week, one shift • Vehicle expected life time=8-10 years ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 24

  25. Sweden MSW Collection Results 2008 Separatelycollected recyclables (from mun. sector)at Recycling centres, packaging collection points 180 kg/cap Total 1,7 Million tonnes ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 25

  26. Total 4,7 million tonnes (510 kg/cap) Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste 2008 ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 26

  27. Sweden Treatment of MSW 1997-2006 Total generated, MSW tonnes/year Treated, tonnes/year Recycling including Producers’ responsibility ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 27

  28. Share of MSW in European Countries ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 28

  29. MSW Treatment in Europe ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 29

  30. Newsprint Corr cardboard Plastic, film Plastic, hard Carton, Tetra-Pak etc Glass pack Metal pack Food scraps Garden waste Diapers Combustible Other glass Metal WEEE Textile Wood Other Haz. Waste (batteries etc) Incinerated Household MSW Composition Producers´ Producers’ 2,5-2,7 kWh/kg ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 30

  31. Household waste, recyclables and the hazardous waste generated in households (4,7 million tonnes = 510 kg/inhabitant) Household waste is waste from households and comparable waste from other activities Responsible for collection and transportation (monopoly) Helps out with battery and WEEE collection Supervision of hazardous waste from industry Cooperation with Producers Local Municipal Councils - Responsibility ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 31

  32. Fee for MSW collection and treatment etc is set by the local council Based on prime cost principle Must cover a wide range of activities: Collection, transport, recycling centres, hazardous household waste, white goods, batteries, information and advice, planning, statistics and administration etc. Single-family home (2008) 2000 SEK/year incl. taxes (280 USD) for 11.3 kg waste/week (collection 26 times/year) Municipality MSW Economy ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 32

  33. Municipality MSW Economy ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 33

  34. Currently for Packaging waste (carton, paper, corrugated cardboard, plastic, glass, wood, metal) Waste paper Tyres Cars WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) Deposit on Al-beverage cans, glass and PET bottles Recovery = recycling (material/biol.treat) + energy recovery EU Recycling of Packaging Directive 94/62/EC 55-80% recycled: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/environment/waste_management/l21207_en.htm Producer’s Responsibility ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 34

  35. The producer must arrange, inform and finance collection and recycling systems Recycling targets must be attained Objective to Prevent Waste? Industry or households? Swedish Producer’s Recycling Responsibilities ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 35

  36. Swedish Producer’s Recycling Targets Source: Swedish EPA Report 6328 ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 36

  37. Producer’s Recycling Targets Target 85% 70% 65% 70% 90% (deposit) Source: Swedish EPA Report 6328 ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 37

  38. Beverage packaging with deposit PET recyclable 84% (90%) deposit 0,3 USD Al-can recyclable 91% (90%) deposit 0,07 USD No target in legislation PET refillable (0,5 Euro) 99% reused Glass bottles (0,05 Euro) 99% reused Swedish Producer’s Recycling Targets ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 38

  39. Producers levies, 2010 e.g. : Plastic 1,37 SEK/kg Metal, al 2,10 SEK/kg Carton 0,75 SEK/kg Corr. Cardboard 0,52-1,22 SEK/kg The producer pays the fee to REPA The consumer pays the fee as a part of the purchased product:300-500 SEK/year (42 – 70 USD) for an average family of 3-4 persons Swedish Financing of Producer Responsibility ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 39

  40. EC directive 1999/31/EC Landfill of waste Stringent standards from 2009 Sweden has reduced no of landfills for MSW from 300 to 80 in ten years. Larger, well controlled landfill sites remain (10 main landfills receive > 40% of landfilled household waste) Swedish Landfills ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 40

  41. Swedish Landfills Cont. • Not just a landfill, also a separation and pre-treatmentfacility! • Landfill gas 310 GWh/year whereof 24 GWh electricity (decreasing) • …but still 65 GWh of landfill gas was flared • 3 million tonnes of residues/soil etc used for final cover, construction on sites

  42. EC directive 1999/31/EC Landfill of waste http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2003:011:0027:0049:EN:PDF Criteria and waste characterization for the acceptance at landfills. European Waste Catalogue – EWC – for waste statistics in EU Main categories: hazardous and non-hazardous EU Landfills ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 42

  43. Oujda modern landfill!SWECO design First load of waste 43

  44. 31 facilities in Sweden (2009) Incinerate 2,3 Mill. t/y of MSW + 2,3 Mill. t/y of industrial combustible waste Recovery of 12,2 TWhheat and 1,5 TWh electricity (of a total heating demand 150 TWh) Covers >20% of district heating demand About 15-20% (w) as residues (slag and ashes) Dioxin emission 2008: 0,8 g total Swedish Incineration of WasteEnergy facilities! ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 44

  45. Waste Incinerator

  46. SWEDISH Incineration of Waste ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 46

  47. 13% of MSW to composting plants (31) or anaerobic digestion facilities with production of biogas (18) 272 700 tonnes of “biofertilizer” 181 000 MWh of raw biogas,whereof 80 000 MWh were upgraded to vehicle fuel (CBG) About 110 municipalities offer separate collection and handling of organic waste to bio- treatment High quality requirements in order to use the digestate in agriculture – certification! SWEDISH Biological Treatment ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 47

  48. Biological Treatment Biogas facility in Helsingborg Wind row composing in Lahore, Pakistan

  49. SWEDISH Biological Treatment ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 49

  50. Sweden average MSW Treatment Fees 2008 Only for the treatment, not including collection, planning, recycling etc ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL COURSE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS 2010 AFRICA 50