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Raised Beds

Raised Beds

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Raised Beds

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  1. Raised Bed GardensOriginal Presentation Prepared byCharlotte Glen, NC Cooperative Extension Service

  2. Raised Beds

  3. Raised Beds

  4. Growing Vegetables: Site Selection • To grow well, vegetables need optimal conditions: • Sun: Full Sun for best results • Full Sun = at least 6-8 hours per day • Good drainage • Well prepared soil • pH ~6.0 – 6.5 • Adequate nutrients • Consistent water supply

  5. Growing Vegetables: Site Selection • For best results, start with a good site! • Full Sun • Well drained soil (water does not stand after rainfall) • Water source close by! • Modify soil based on soil test results (pH, nutrients) • Mix compost into the soil

  6. Starting Vegetables • Seed • Some vegetables are sown directly into the garden to grow in place • These typically grow from large seed and fast to grow (eg. cucumbers), or do not like to be transplanted (root crops) • Transplants • Other vegetables are planted in the garden as small plants, called transplants • Slower growing plants or plants with smaller seed

  7. Seed Sown Direct Radish Rutabaga Turnips Mustard Carrots Garden Peas Beans and Field Peas Peanuts Sweet Corn Potatoes As Transplants Tomatoes Peppers Eggplants Broccoli Cauliflower Cabbage Collards Sweet Potatoes How Vegetables are Typically Planted

  8. Some can be planted more than one way: • Lettuce and Spinach • Can be planted as single plants or sown direct as ‘bed’ – common method for Mesclunmixes • Onion and Garlic planted from ‘cloves’ and ‘sets’ = small bulbs. Onion can also be grown from transplants.

  9. Types of Vegetable Varieties • Open Pollinated • ‘Heirloom’ varieties – can save own seed and varieties will come true to type • Hybrid • Result of a cross between 2 or more parents – saved seed do not come true • Usually more uniform, more vigorous, more disease resistant

  10. Planting Times When to plant depends on what you are growing: • Cool Season crops • grow fall – spring • e.g. lettuce, broccoli, cabbage, onions • Warm Season crops • grow spring (after frost) – fall • e.g. corn, melons, squash, peppers, tomatoes

  11. Vegetable Garden Calendar • Early Spring: Feb, Early March • Plant cool season crops outside to harvest through early summer (June) • Spring: April, May • Plant warm season crops outside to produce through summer (usually finish by August) • Late Summer: Aug, Sept • Plant quick maturing warm season crops to harvest through first frost • Plant cool season crops • Quick maturing, half hardy – harvest in fall through Dec. • Long season, hardy– stand through winter

  12. Planning: Crop Rotation • Do not grow same crop or crop from same family in same spot year after year • Rotate areas crops are grown • Reduces pest problems • Insects, diseases, and weeds • Must know which plants are related to plan rotation

  13. Crop Rotation • Brassicas (Mustard Family): • Broccoli, Brussel Sprouts, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Collards, Kale, Mustard, Radish, Turnips, Rutabaga, Kohlrabi • Cucurbits (Squash Family): • Cucumbers, Squash, Zucchini, Winter Squash, Pumpkins, Cantaloupe, Watermelons

  14. Crop Rotation • Solanaceous (Nightshade Family) • Tomatoes, Peppers, Eggplant, Potatoes • Legumes(Pea Family) • Garden peas, peanuts, green beans, lima beans, southern peas • Alliums (Onion Family) • Onions, garlic, leeks, scallions

  15. Growing Vegetables • Nutrition and Fertilization • Watering • Pest Management

  16. Growing Vegetables: Nutrients • Always start with soil sampling! • Base rates on soil test results and recommendations for crop • Terms: • Preplant – incorporated into soil before planting • Sidedress – applied to surface of soil after crops planted

  17. Growing Vegetables: Nutrients • Most vegetables grow best at a pH of 6.0 to 6.5 • IF pH is lower than 6.0, Lime should be tilled into the soil • Dolomitic lime supplies Calcium and Magnesium, and raises pH • Blossom End Rot: melons, peppers, tomatoes = low calcium

  18. Growing Vegetables: Nutrients • Fertilizers are usually needed to supply some of the nutrients plants need • Both organic and synthetic fertilizers are available • Synthetic fertilizers usually have higher concentrations of nutrients • Organic fertilizers are better for the soil (encourage microorganisms)

  19. Growing Vegetables:Nutrients • Slow release fertilizers • Release nutrients over an extended period of time • Work great but are more expensive • Highly recommended in sandy soils • Coated fertilizers like Osmocote and organic fertilizers • Soluble Fertilizers • Applied as granules but dissolve readily in water • 10-10-10 • Liquid Fertilizers • e.g. Manure Tea, Fish Emulsion, Miracle Grow • Only provide a quick feed, only good for a fast boost

  20. Growing Vegetables: Nutrients • For both organic and synthetic fertilizers, analysis (nutrient content) must be stated on bag. • E.g. 32-10-10 • Numbers are percentages (32%) • Always represent Nitrogen, Phophorus and Potassium, always in that order

  21. Compost andFertilizing • Compost = provides some nutrients but usually does not meet crop needs • Compost = soil amendment (organic matter), helps soil hold water and nutrients and improves soil condition, but should not be considered fertilizer!

  22. Growing Vegetables: Water • Most vegetables require ~ 1” water per week from rain or irrigation • Keep top 1’ of soil consistently moist • Soaker hoses work well • Do not wet foliage = Reduces disease problems • Less water lost through evaporation • Place close to base of plants • Mulch will help conserve moisture

  23. Mulching Vegetable Gardens • Beneficial! • Any biodegradable matter, 2”-4” • Grass clippings (aged): No Herbicides! • Newspaper • Straw • Till in at end of season

  24. Growing Vegetables: Managing Pests • Insects • Diseases • Weeds

  25. Managing Insects and Diseases • If you plant it, they will come!!! • Scout regularly to find problems before they become established • Have problems properly identified before treating Cabbage Looper

  26. Managing Insects and Diseases • Prevent pests through: • Crop Rotation • Sanitation = clean up crop debris at end of season, cull pest ridden plants asap • Good soil preparation = healthier plants! • Proper nutrition = too little or too much will increase problems • Proper watering = prevent stress • Plant at correct times

  27. Disease Management • Choose disease resistant varieties whenever possible! • Avoid overhead watering – keeps leaves wet • Space plants properly for better air circulation • If have soil born disease problems – grow in containers • Re: Rotate crops!!, Prepare soil!! Powdery Mildew

  28. Floating Row Cover • Thin, light, spun-bonded synthetic fiber used for frost protection and as a barrier to keep out insects • Remay is a common brand • Must take off for pollination!!!

  29. Weed Management • Weeds harbor pests and steal water and nutrients! • Control methods: • Mulch! • Cultivation (hoeing), hand weeding • Herbicides

  30. Hallelujah!

  31. Cool Season Vegetables

  32. Cool Season Vegetables • Prefer to grow during cooler times of the year: Fall and Spring • Tolerate some level of frost • Half-hardy: tolerate light frost, usually productive through December • Hardy: tolerate heavy frost, can produce through winter

  33. Cool Season Vegetables • Harvesting of half hardy crops can be extended by covering with floating row cover for 2 to 4 of frost protection • Doubling the cover increases frost protection • Can be placed over top of crop or used to cover low tunnels

  34. Fast Maturing, Half Hardy Crops for Spring and Fall Successive sowings for continuous harvest: • Radish – 30 days • Mustard – 30 days • Lettuce (leaf) and mesclun – 30-50 days • Spinach – 50-60 days (hardy) • Green Onions (Scallions) – 30 days

  35. Radish • Mature in 25 – 30 days, sow Sept. 1 through Nov. 1, and Feb. 1 – April 1 • Hot temps, water stress can cause strong flavor and woody texture • Harvest when 1” in diameter • Daikon: long white radish, mild flavor • Grow like radish but takes longer to mature

  36. Lettuce • Only moderately frost tolerant – extend harvest by using row cover in winter • Seed need light to germinate – pelleted/primed seed are easier to grow • Likes constant supply of Nitrogen and soils with good organic matter content • Grows well in containers • If bitter, store in refrigerator a few days

  37. Leaf Lettuce • Mature in 30-50 days, sow late Aug. – mid Sept. and Feb - March • Do not form dense heads • Easiest – seed mixes available • Many color variations, leaf shapes • Can plant in rows or ‘patch’ • Make successive sowings every 2 weeks for extended harvest

  38. Head Lettuce • Romaine/Cos and Butterhead/Bibb do well • Romaine mature in 50-60 days, sow late August and Feb • Bibb types mature in 40-50 days, sow late August • Iceberg is finicky in our area

  39. Other Salad Greens • Arugula/Roquette • Matures in 50 days, sow direct in garden late Aug – late Sept., Feb - April • Pungent, spicy taste • Mesclun Mixes • Seed mixes of several types of salad greens, may include lettuce • Grow in patches like leaf lettuce

  40. Mustard and Turnip Greens • Mature in 35-50 days, sow direct in patches late August – mid Oct., Feb - March • Sow new patch every couple of weeks for extended harvest • Can be grown mixed together or separate • Some turnip varieties only produce greens – no roots Mustard leaves have curly edges Turnip greens are slightly prickly

  41. Spinach • Matures 30-40 days, sow mid Sept through early Nov., Feb - March • Very cold hardy • Need fresh seed • Grow in rows or 12” wide beds – sow new rows every couple of weeks

  42. Half Hardy Crops for Spring and Fall: Brassicas • Broccoli – 70 – 80 days • Cauliflower (better in Fall) – 60 days • Turnips – 60 days for roots • Kohlrabi – 60 days • Look out for looperson all Brassicas • DiPel (B.t.) = natural disease that only kills caterpillars

  43. Broccoli • Matures in 50-70 days, start seed in early August, set out homegrown or purchased transplants mid August – mid September • Half hardy – harvest through Dec. • Heavy feeder – needs consistent nitrogen • Plant in rows, every 2 weeks • After harvest main head, side shoots will develop

  44. Cauliflower • Matures in 55-65 days, start seed in early August, set out homegrown or purchased transplants late Aug – mid Sept. • Fall is the best time to grow cauliflower! Heads are frost sensitive • Stress will cause ‘buttoning’ • Remove after harvesting

  45. Rutabaga and Kohlrabi • Rutabaga: Mature in 90 days, sow in early to late August • Harvest when size of a softball • Kohlrabi: Mature in 45 days, sow mid August through mid Oct. • Edible part is swollen stem above soil level

  46. Turnips Roots • Mature in 40-50 days, sow late Aug. through mid Oct. • Harvest when size of tennis ball • Can also harvest greens – over harvest of greens reduces root size

  47. Long Season, Hardy Brassicas Plant late summer, stand through winter • Brussel Sprouts – 100 days • Collards – 100 days • Kale - 50 days • Can have separate spring and fall crops • Cabbage – 70 – 80 days • Can have separate spring and fall crops

  48. Cabbage • Mature in 65-90 days, sow in early Aug. or set out transplants in late Aug. – early Sept. Spring crop set out Feb – early March • Consistent moisture and nutrients results in high quality heads • Most varieties very hardy, can stay in garden through winter • Chinese cabbage do well in fall – less frost hardy

  49. Collards and Kale • Mature in 55-75 days, sow in early Aug. or set out transplants in early Sept. – early Oct. Spring crop set out mid Feb - March • Plant in rows, every few weeks • Very cold hardy will produce through winter