planting material and their management in mango n.
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  2. PROPAGATION • Mangoes are raised from seeds or propagated vegetatively. • Propagation from seed, though easy and cheap, is unable to perpetuate characters of the parent tree because most of the commercial varieties in India are cross-pollinated and monoembryonic. • Seed grown plants take more time to bear fruit. • Hence, several methods of vegetative propagation have been tried with varying percentage of success. • It is essential to raise seedlings to be used as rootstocks for vegetative propagation. Next previous End

  3. Mango seeds are moisture loving otherwise known as “Recalcitrant” type has to be sown immediately after extraction. • After emergence, 25 kg nitrogen (N) per ha is applied in the form of urea, CAN or any other available inorganic source in two split doses at about two months interval after the leaves have become green. When the seedlings attain the age of 2-3 months, they are transplanted in beds or pots and are then used for vegetative propagation. Next previous End

  4. Various methods of vegetative propagation followed in mango are: • Inarching • Veneer grafting • Soft wood grafting Next previous End

  5. Inarching • Inarching or approach grafting is a popular method of propagation. • The method consists of uniting the selected shoot (scion) of a desired parent tree (mother plant) with the potted or transplanted seedling (rootstock) by approach grafting • For this purpose, about one year old seedling of 30-45 cm height and a thickness ranging from 0.75 to 1.5 cm is most suitable • These seedlings are either grown in pots or under the mother plant from which the grafts are to be prepared, depending upon the availability of suitable branches. • Generally, a matured twig of the past season is used as scion of (60 cm in length) and nearly of the same thickness as that of the stock is chosen for grafting. Next previous End

  6. Hot dry period as well as heavy rains during the inarching period is not conducive. • Young and non-bearing trees should not be selected as mother plants. • July - October is considered as the most suitable time in low rainfall areas while, October - December • is the best season in heavy rainfall regions. Next previous End

  7. Veneer grafting • Veneer grafting possesses promise for large scale commercial propagation. Next previous End

  8. The method is simple and can be adopted with success.The rootstocks as mentioned for inarching are suitable for this method also. This method has one striking advantage of using the detached scion sticks for propagation, i.e.the shoot of the mother plant which is to be multiplied can be cut away from the mother plant and used for grafting in the nursery. Proper selection of scion is very important for the success of this method. The scion to be used for veneer grafting ought to be 3-4 months old and requires proper preparation. The desired shoots should be defoliated at least one week prior to grafting so that the dormant buds in the axis of leaves become swollen. September – October is considered favorable for veneer grafting Next previous End

  9. Epicotyl grafting • Mango is generally propagated by inarching and veneer grafting but these methods are time consuming and laborius. • Epicotyl grafting is a simple, cheap and quick method. • After germination, seedlings with tender stems having coppery leaves are lifted with seeds still attached. • The roots and seeds are dipped in 0.1 per cent Carbendazim solution for 5 minutes after washing the soil. • The seedling stems are headed back leaving 6-8 cm long stem. A 4 to 6 cm longitudinal cut is made running down through the middle of the stem. • A wedge shaped cut starting on both sides is made on the lower part of scion. Next previous End

  10. The scion should be 4-6 months old and of 10 to 15 cm long containing prominent terminal buds. The scion is then inserted in the cleft of the seedlings and tied with polythene strips. The grafts are then planted in polyethylene bags containing potting mixture. The bags are then kept in the shade protecting from heavy rain.When the scion sprouts and the leaves become green, the grafted plants are to be hardened before planting in nursery beds. July is the most suitable month for epicotyl grafting. Next previous End

  11. Soft wood grafting This method is an ideal one to establish in situ mango orchard. This method of grafting is done when the rootstock is overgrown and thus not suitable for epicotyl grafting. Normally in this method, seedlings of 8-10 months old are selected. The scion to be used is defoliated 10 days prior to the grafting and has same thickness as that of terminal shoot. The method of grafting is similar to epicotyl grafting. July – August is the best period for soft wood grafting Next previous End

  12. PLANTING Prior to planting, the field should be pulverised. Deep ploughing followed by harrowing and a minimum levelling should be done for the better establishment of grafts. Pits of 3 x 3 x 3 feet size are dug at appropriate distances and filled with sufficient quantity of farm yard manure to facilitate better aeration and water holding. If the land is undulating, it is better to keep the land without levelling. Levelling may lead to the removal of top soil which is not good for mangoes. Next previous End

  13. Time of planting • The best time for planting of mango all over India is during the monsoon when there is sufficient moisture in the atmosphere. • In areas of heavy rainfall, the best time of planting mango is the end of the rainy season. • In tracts where the rainfall is less, the planting can be done in the early part of the monsoon for better establishment. • However in Tamil Nadu, planting starts from July to October so as to avail the monsoon rains and the moderate weather suitable for young grafts establishment. Next previous End

  14. The planting distance varies with variety, soil fertility and general weather conditions prevailing in the area. • The extra spacing will be given for a vigourous variety in a fertile soil planted in high rainfall areas. However, spacing will be reduced for non-vigourous variety planted in poor soil in low rainfall areas Accordingly, mangoes will be planted at a spacing of 10 x 10 m, 8 x 8 m, 7 x 7 m, 6 x 6 m and 5 x 5 m. However, under high density planting, considering the above said factors, 5 x 3m, 5 x 2.5m, 3x3m, 2.5 x 2.5 m spacing were also adopted following special packages to meet the demand. Next previous End

  15. Size of pits • Mango being a perennial crop, pits of 1 x 1 x 1 m are to be dug at desired distances for good establishment. • In case machineries are used, a pit of 1 cubic meter may be enough for planting. Filling of pits • The pits should be filled with the original soil taken from the pit. • While filling, 50 kg well rotten farm yard manure may be added in the top two-third portion. • In case of stony soils, it is better to remove all the stones from the excavated material and remaining soils is mixed with soil scrapped from the left over area and farm yard manure. • The pits are invariably filled before the rainy season, so that there is better compaction before the advent of heavy rainfall and much before planting. • It is always advised to plant the grafts as seen in the pot without changing the position. Next previous End

  16. Planting of grafts • Graft with its ball of earth intact is taken out of the soil or pot. • The graft is then placed with the help of a planting board in the centre of the pit by excavating as much soil as necessary to accommodate the root-ball. • The moist soil of the pit is then pressed all around the root ball to complete the planting process. • A small basin is then made and the graft is properly watered. • The planting should not be done so deep as to bury the graft-union in the soil or so high as to expose the upper roots. • It is also advised to plant the graft as seen in the pot without changing the position. Next previous End