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PSYCHOLOGY PowerPoint Presentation


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  2. Why study Psychology? • Psychology helps us to understand why we do what we do by providing a framework • Insight into the “whys” by analyzing settings and motives into our actions • Practical information about human behavior

  3. OVERVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY • What is it? • Scientific study of behavior and mental processes • Human and animal • Observable and unobservable • Scientific Basis • Use scientific method to reach conclusions about specific problems or questions

  4. SCIENTIFIC METHOD Hypothesis • Educated guess based on some evidence of what they expect to find • What they expect to find stated in a way that can be proven or disproved • Survey, questionnaire-tool in which results can be analyzed

  5. GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY • Description • Gather info about behavior being studied • Exploration • Seek to explain behavior • Use hypothesis and test it • Theory -complex explanation based on findings from many studies • Theories change as new data is added

  6. GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY • Prediction • Based on knowledge from exploration, psychologists predict what animals/humans might do • “Your past predicts your future” • Control • Basic science/research to study behavior • Applied science-new ways to use what we already know • Not all basic science can or should be applied…too broad, too general

  7. HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY • Began in ancient Greece-5th and 6th centuries BC • People’s behavior dominated not by the gods, but by their own decisions-their minds…people were rational!!! • Did not use scientific studies as we know them-just basic observation of people

  8. HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY • Middle Ages-Catholic Church was THE major influence on Europeans • Taught that the earth was the center of the universe and the sun revolved around it • 1500’s-Nicolaus Copernicus, through observation, stated the opposite-the sun is the center • Galileo used telescope to confirm predictions about stars’ and placement/movement based on Copernicus’s observations • Experimentation through observation

  9. HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY • 17th century philosophers defined dualism • Mind and body are separate and distinct • Descartes said no-the mind controls the body’s movements, actions • Mind and body influence each other • 18th century biologists found that cells are the building blocks of life • Chemists created Periodic Table • Physicists furthered understanding of atomic forces and…psychology was formed

  10. PSYCHOLOGY AS A DISCIPLINE Structuralism Functionalism 1890-William James wrote Principals of Psychology Thinking, feeling, learning, remembering help us survive Focused on function of conscious =mind and goals of behavior • 1879-Wilhelm Wundt started Laboratory of Psych. to study the human mind • Introspection=self-observation • People reported their thoughts, Wundt tried to map out thought process

  11. STUDY OF UNCONSCIOUS PROCESSES • Sigmund Freud • Psychoanalysis- unconscious motivations and conflicts are responsible for behavior • Urges are in conflict with the mores of society and morality • Used free association-whatever came to patient’s mind to reveal the workings of the mind • Psychoanalyst job=interpret association into something meaningful • Dream analysis-dreams are expressions of our most primitive unconscious urges and should be analyzed the same way as free association

  12. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES • 19th century-Sir Francis Galton • How does heredity influence ability, character and behavior? • Found greatness runs in families • Decided it was an inherited trait • Did not look at environment or socio-economic causes • Created was we know today as personality and intelligence tests

  13. STUDY OF OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR Behaviorism Humanism Human nature is active and creative rather than passive (reacting to external stimuli) Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers and Rollo May Human mind can change and influence the world We perceive and interpret our world, making decisions based on circumstances • Ivan Pavlov • Tone, then meat powder=salivate • Dogs began salivating at sound of tone even if no food existed=conditioned reflex • Response (salivation) by a stimulus (tone)other than one first produced (food) • Therefore…behavior is product of prior experience • John Watson-psychology should be on observable behavior • B.F. Skinner-made Watson’s behaviorist theory popular with Walden Two – Utopia= communities where people were rewarded for displaying good behavior in every facet of life • Reinforcement – controlled reward and punishment…where is this technique used today?

  14. PSYCHOLOGY AS A PROFESSION • A psychologist is trained to • observe and analyze behavior patterns • Develop theories on behavior • Apply knowledge to influence behavior • A psychologist is not • A psychiatrist-specializes in medicine-is a doctor • Rarely involved in research • Can prescribe medicine • Focus is helping patients with emotional difficulties