Tone Unit An utterance may be spoken as a single tone unit or it may be broken into several tone units. The way the utterance is divided into tone units depends partly on the tempo of the speech. The faster a person speaks, the longer and fewer the tone units
Tone Unit 一句话可以被视为一个或多个语调单元。语调单元的划分也是我们常说的断句，其有一定的主观性，但主要还是取决于语意和语法。 Everybody sits and waits/ in the shade of the trees /while the family begins to wake up and move off.
根据语法，句子可以分为两小句。在第一小句中，可以分为两个语调组。sits and waits 应该视为一个动作整体，所以不能断开而应属一个语音单元
断句与语意 断句和语意有直接的关系，在某些情况下，同一句话用不同的方式划分语调单元，句意完全不一样。 例一： A) I’ve opened the box ／in the chair. 我坐在椅子上打开了那个盒子。 B) I’ve opened ／ the box in the chair. 我打开了那个放在椅子上的盒子。
断句与语意 例二： A) I bought／ a shirt and／a tie. • 我买了一件衬衣还有一条领带。 • B) He was wearing／ a shirt and tie. • 他穿着衬衣打着领带。 • (From p94, English pron in use). • 在A 句中，说话人把衬衣和领带视为两件物品，而在B句中，衬衣和领带则是一套着装。
Divide sentences into tonic units(There may be more than one possible answers.) • Pat took ten books. • We’re going downtown this afternoon. • On the way home we’ll stop at the library if we have time. • I’ve read the book on the bed. • Writers have complained that Baidu did not have permission for their works to appear on its document-sharing site.
Tips for Tone Unites 1. Tone Unites are not only determined by grammar but utterance meaning. 2. Within a unit, there should be no pause. Finish one unit with one breath. 3. In one tone unit, the tone change occurs on one word. Other words are spoken with a flat tone generally. (We’ll come to tone change later on.) 4. memorize phrases as a tone unit.
重音 • 重音分单词重音和语句重音两种。 • 只要是有两个音节以上的单词都有一个重音，一些长的单词有两个重音。
单词重音规则 • 在英语中，许多常用名词和动词重音往往在第一个音节上 ’English ’language ’learner ’students ’father ’mother ’teacher ’people ’sister ’brother ’family ’pretty
单词重音规则 • 带有前缀be-, in-, dis-, ex-, un-的双音节和多音节词，重音几乎都落在第二或第三个音节上，因为英语的前缀是不重读的 be’come in’vite dis’tract ex’pect dis’cover in’form ex’clude un’do be’gin un’lock dis’close ex’plode
单词重音规则 • 英语所有词的后缀都不重读。而且，许多后缀可以决定重音的位置。在带有后缀的长单词(3-6个音节)中，重音总是在词的中间，而不在第一或第二个音节上 pre’ventive he’roic im’pressive es’sential in’vention in’fectious oppor’tunity in’vestigator vo’cabulary
单词重音规则 • 单词加后缀-able以后，重音保持不变 re’liable ’comfortably ’national de’pendable ’knowledgeable a’daptable
复合词读音规则 • 名词+名词：重音倾向于落在第一个音节上 a ’postman a ’newspaper a ’blackbird a ’keyboard a ’chairman a ’salesgirl • 形容词+名词：如果两个词已变成一个合成词，重音在第一个音节上；否则都要重读 This is the ’greenhouse. This is the ’green ’house. I see a ’hotdog. I see a ’hot ’dog.
重音转移（Stress Shifts） 1) Rhythmical Stress Double Drop the first ‘after’noon ‘this after’noon ‘four’teen ‘He is four’teen ‘in’side ‘come in’side ‘un’known ‘quite un’known ‘second-’hand ‘all second-’hand
重音转移（Stress Shifts） 1) Rhythmical Stress DoubleDrop the second ‘after’noon an ‘afternoon ‘lesson ‘four’teen ‘fourteen ‘years of ‘age ‘in’side an ‘inside ‘seat ‘un’known an ‘unknown ‘fact
重音转移（Stress Shifts） • 2) Contrasting Stress dis’honest ‘honest and ‘dishonest ‘in’accurate ‘accurate and ‘inaccurate im’perfect ‘perfect and ‘imperfect
重音转移（Stress Shifts） • 3) Alternative Stress • 拼写相同但词性不同的词：名词重音都在第一个音节上，动词重音在第二个音节上 contest contrast discount record import produce digest export survey protest refuse object
语句重音 • 一般来说，句子中实词重读，虚词不重读 • 名词、形容词、数词、动词、副词是实词 • 冠词、介词、连词、助动词是虚词 • 一般来说，代词不重读，如her, me, it等，但指示代词和疑问代词，如this, what要重读。
语句重音-特例情况 • 1. A content word, which normally has sentences stress, appearing for the second time in a sentence or in a short context, is not stressed. 2. the affirmative forms (肯定形式) of ‘be’ and auxiliary verbs are stressed in tag questions(附加疑问句) (e.g. She isn’t a doctor, is she?) and at the beginning of questions (e.g. Have you finished?) (see exercise 1.5)
The stressingof some function words: • 2. ‘may’ & ‘might’ are stressed when indicating possibility (e.g. This may or may not be true.) (see exercise 1.7). • 3. Conjunctions: when the conjunctions have an emphatic meaning (e.g. although, even if/though), they are stressed. (see exercise 1.8)
Listen for Stress "You have been trifling with me," he cried. "I am off to the Pyramids. Good-bye!" and he flew away. All day long he flew, and at night-time he arrived at the city. "Where shall I put up?" he said; "I hope the town has made preparations. "Then he saw the statue on the tall column. "I will put up there," he cried; "it is a fine position, with
Listen for stress plenty of fresh air." So he alighted just between the feet of the Happy Prince. "I have a golden bedroom," he said softly to himself as he looked round, and he prepared to go to sleep; but just as he was putting his head under his wing a large drop of water fell on him. "What a curious thing!" he cried; "there is not a single cloud in the sky, the stars are quite clear and bright, and yet it is raining. The climate in the north of Europe is really dreadful. The Reed used to like the rain, but that was merely her selfishness."
英语语调的基本要点 英语句子的音调从第一个重读音节开始，由高到低，依次下降。升降调的变化发生在最后的重读音节上。 school ╮ go to school - · ╮ Tom has started school. ¯· - · ╮ Mrs. Smith drove her son to school. ¯ · - - · - . ╮ 如句子以重读音节结尾，用升调时即在该音节自然滑动上升，用降调时则在该音节自然滑落下降。
降调朗读练习 More Exercise: pp. 100~102, Handbook ╮ quick, bed, barked, sports ╮. quicker, better, basket, failure ╮.. beautiful, medicine, family, certainly ╮... criticism, necessary, difficulty, agriculture .╮ about, along, success, advice, advance, .╮. September, determine, discussion, important ..╮ afternoon, magazine, Japanese, Portuguese
升调朗读练习 ╯ come, like, bed, hand _ · failure, lecture, children, goodness _ . · beautiful, medicine, family, certainly _ . · ·criticism, necessary, difficulty, agriculture
英语语调的基本要点 如句子以非重读音节开始，则它们的语调低平。 如句子最后一个重读音节后面还有一个或几个非重读音节（包括非重读单词），用升调时重读音节不必滑动，而由非重读音节依次上升；用降调时则在重读音节自然滑落下降后，用低平语调读出。
升降调朗读练习 More Exercise: pp. 102~105, Handbook What time will you come? ¯ - . . ╮ I’ve already seen that movie twice. . . ¯ · - - - · ╮ New York City is the largest city in America today. ¯ ¯ ¯ · · · - · · · · · - . . . ╮ May I use your pen? . . ¯ · ╯ Does he get up at six every morning? . . ¯ ¯ · - _ .. _ · ╯ Did he leave a message for me? . . ¯ · - . . · ╯
降调的作用 明确、肯定、果断、干脆、完整、独立 Today everybody knows that the earth moves round the sun. We will move across the river tomorrow. That’s an order!
升调的作用 表示疑问，惊讶 --- I lost my bike. --- Again? 比较客气的口气 Oh, it’s very kind of you. Thank you! 句子未完，还不肯定、不完整、不独立 I bought a pen, a toothbrush, a basin, and some toilet paper.
升调的作用 升调表达说话人不确定。升调的使用还有语用功能，即升调可以表达说话人礼物的口吻，这一点在实际的语言交流中很有用。什么是礼貌？ 礼貌就是不强求对方，让听话人有选择的余地。在说话人发出请求时， 使用升调是礼貌的，让听话人感觉到自己可以答应也可以不答应对方的请求。
升调的作用 • 表达旧信息 • 在操本族语者之间的交流中，如果说话人选择降调，则表明其认为该信息对听话人而言属于未知信息，如果说话人选择升调，则表明其认为该信息对听话人而言属于已知信息。简言之，升调用于表达已知信息。 请看下面对话
升调表达旧信息 对话一： A: The train’s cheap. B: The bus’s cheaper. 对话二：A: Why did you take the bus? B: The bus was cheap. 对话三：A: This one's nice.B: I know it's nice, but it's expensive.
一、简单句的语调 反意疑问句逗号前用降调，逗号后如提问者希望对方回答用升调；如提问者仅仅希望对方加以证实时用降调 You work in a computer company, don’t you? 选择疑问句一般前面选择都用升调，最后一个选择用降调 Is he going to visit China before, during, or after the Olympic Games? 祈使句一般在表示命令时用降调 Stay right here. Don’t go away till I come back. 感叹句一般用降调 How wonderful it would be if you could go with us!
一、简单句的语调 More Exercise: pp. 105~107, Handbook 陈述句一般用降调 There is a young man standing by the window with a gun in his hand. 一般疑问句一般用升调 Has he been away from home for a long time? 特殊疑问句一般用降调 What changes have taken place in their village in the past twenty years?
二、长句和复合句的语调 不能也不宜一口气读完，而应该按意群适当停顿。 句首状语，较长的名词性词组或从句一般都用升调。 Well, if that’s the case, explain why I often see you standing out in front of the house, looking up at the sky. 如果主句在前，从句在后，则从句的语调随主句语调而定。 What was he doing when you saw him?
二、长句和复合句的语调 做定语用的短语和定语从句的语调与所修饰的词的语调一致。 Do you know the man sitting on the right side of our president? 并列复合句如两部分联系紧密，前一分句用升调，后一分句用降调；如联系并不紧密，或同等重要，也可都用降调。 His wife is a teacher, and she teaches very well.
二、长句和复合句的语调 在含有直接引语的句子中，引号中的直接引语部分要感情充沛，而引号外的部分要低一音阶，而且读得要轻一些，以表示不属于引语部分。 “Yes,” his father said slowly, “But I sure do hate to wake him.” 插入语读时要比句子的主要成分低一音阶，而且读得要轻一些，快一些，以表示不属于句子主要部分。 Twenty years, it seems to me, is a long time between meetings.
长句语调练习 This officer was standing across a small counter from a young white boy who was wearing a V-necked sweater. He had sandy hair, and I think I was especially aware of him because he looked more like a kid from a prep school than a customer in a bank.
长句语调练习 More Exercise: pp. 107~112, Handbook “I’ve already explained to you,” the officer told him, “that a fourteen-year-old is not allowed to withdraw money without a letter from his parents.” We all tend to regard as the center that special place where we are known, where we know others, where things mean much to us, and where we ourselves have both identity and meaning: family, school, town and local region could all be our center of the world.
一些语音课堂活动与练习形式 开课之初给每个同学录音，然后和学期结束时作比较 模仿跟读 教师点评 学生互评 学生朗读材料，把最满意的一篇录音，带到课堂让大家分享；由教师和学生共同点评