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RAP 12/17 pg 94

RAP 12/17 pg 94

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RAP 12/17 pg 94

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  1. RAP 12/17pg 94 What is a rock? What are the three types of rocks?

  2. Topic: Rocks—Chapter 6 6.1 How Rocks Form 6.2 Igneous Rocks 6.3 Sedimentary Rocks 6.4 Metamorphic Rocks

  3. How Rocks Form • In this section, we will be answering two questions: • What is a rock? • What is the rock cycle? ?

  4. What is a rock? =group of minerals bound together.

  5. A. Rock Cycle link

  6. Rock Cycle Diagram • Tape the Rock Cycle onto page 95 in your notebook.

  7. Rocks! Metamorphic Sedimentary Igneous

  8. B. Rock Types 1. Igneous Rocks a. form from crystallization of _____ magma

  9. b. Classification i. Type of magma -Felsic or Granitic or Rhyolitic-rocks are lightcolored and have high silica content - Mafic rocksaredarkcolored, havelower silica

  10. Felsic or Mafic? Mafic ________ http://www.pitt.edu/~cejones/GeoImages/2IgneousRocks/IgneousCompositions/7Rhyolite/RhyoliteCUp.jpg Felsic ________ http://itc.gsw.edu/faculty/tweiland/gabbro.jpg

  11. RAP 12/18 (pg 96) • The rock shown is composed primarily of large crystals that were formed by • Cooling magma c. weathering • Compacting shells d. faulting • What word would describe the type of magma that formed this rock? • Why?

  12. Classifying Igneous Rocks ii. Grain size or texture Extrusive rocks are fine-grained. - - Intrusive rocks are coarse-grained http://core.ecu.edu/geology/harper/igneous/I15lg.gif

  13. Classifying Igneous Rocks • two types: -______________-lava cools quickly on Earth’s surface, small crystals (fine-grained) -________________-lava cools slowly underground, large crystals (coarse-grained) Extrusive Intrusive

  14. Intrusive or Extrusive? ___________________ ________________ volcano.und.nodak.edu/.../volcanic_rocks.html http://cc.usu.edu/~sharohl/glossary.html

  15. What are the two main ways petrologists classify igneous rocks? • If you find a rock that is dark with large grains, what 2 terms would you use to describe it? • If you find a light rock with large crystals, what 2 terms would you use to describe it? • If you find a light rock with small crystals, what 2 terms would you use to describe it?

  16. RAP 1/2 pg. 96Welcome Back! • What two processes would occur to change a metamorphic rock to an IGNEOUS rock? 2.

  17. RAP 1/3 pg. 96 • How do metamorphic rocks form? • What two ways are metamorphic rocks classified? (hint-use your essentials)

  18. 2. Metamorphic heat • changed by ___________ and ___________ Types of metamorphism • Regional • Contact • Hydrothermal pressure

  19. 1. Regional Metamorphism • affects large regions of the Earth’s crust • most often generated by the compressive forces of mountain building www.gly.fsu.edu/.../ 7_Rocks/7_Rocks_index.htm

  20. 3. Hydrothermal Metamorphism 2. Contact Metamorphism • occurs when very hot water reacts with rock. • occurs when solid rock comes in contact with molten rock solid rock, usually from an ________ intrusion. igneous http://enterprise.cc.uakron.edu/geology/natscigeo/Lectures/smrocks/metafig.gif http://www.uoguelph.ca/~sadura/metref/met19.gif

  21. Places where metamorphic rocks can form.

  22. Formation of metamorphic rocks Pressure from the weight of overlying rocks

  23. b. Textures i. Foliated ii. Nonfoliated

  24. i. Foliated • foliated : wavy layers and bands of minerals • high pressure during metamorphism, can cause flat or needle-like crystals to form Gneiss Ex_________: alternating bands of light and dark

  25. Gneiss Rocks! Photo courtesy of Claude G. Genest, University of Quebec at http://www.uqtr.uquebec.ca/relief/Terme/Photo/IMG0054.jpg

  26. Gneiss Gneiss

  27. Mineral Changes During Foliation Diagram courtesy of Dr. Jürgen Schieber, Indiana University, at http://www.indiana.edu/~geol105/images/gaia_chapter_5/foliation.jpg

  28. Foliation: Slate Photo courtesy of David L. Ozsvath, University of Wisconsin, at http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ozsvath/images/slate.jpg

  29. You don’t know schist! Granite schist with garnet porphyroblasts http://www.otago.ac.nz/geology/features/rocks-minerals/schist-gnt.jpg

  30. Schist happens! http://www.gc.maricopa.edu/earthsci/imagearchive/DK_MICA_SCHIST_big.jpg

  31. ii. Nonfoliated -Blocky crystal shapes Example: Quartzite http://www.physci.wsc.ma.edu/young/pgeol/geoinfo/images/rocks/quartzite.jpg

  32. Shale Slate Phyllite Schist

  33. Parent rocks and their metamorphic babies.

  34. Do Now 12/17 • Using the chart above: • Rocks subjected to high temperature and pressure during metamorphism, can form ______. • What are two possible parent rocks of gneiss? • What does limestone turn into when it undergoes metamorphism?

  35. Metamorphic Mini lab

  36. RAP 1/4 pg. 98 • Schist is a type of _______ metamorphic rock. • Marble is a type of ______ metamorphic rock. • Granite is a type of _______ igneous rock. • Pumice is a type of ______ igneous rock.

  37. 3. Sedimentary Rocks a.formed from sediments, dissolved minerals, and/or materials organic

  38. b. Process of formation: i. Weathering -the breaking down of rock into smaller pieces by and processes physical chemical

  39. ii. Erosion -the movement ofsediments

  40. iii. Lithification- process of turning sediments into rock -of sediments by overlying layers squeezed out excess space and water occurs as dissolved minerals cement sediment grains together compaction and cementation

  41. c. Types of Sedimentary Rock • Clastic • Nonclastic

  42. i. Clastic -formed from fragments of other rocks or organic material - classified by size and shapeof fragments Sediment Size Rock Example Conglomerate or breccia Gravel • 2mm 0.063 – 2mm 0.004 – 0.063mm <0.004mm Sand Sandstone Silt Siltstone Clay Shale

  43. Clastic Formation Animation • http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es0605/es0605page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization

  44. ii. Nonclastic -form from dissolved minerals coming out of solutionby or -fine-grainedunless they are crystallized precipitation evaporation Limestone (chalk)

  45. Precipitated Mineral: Death Valley

  46. RAP 1/7 pg. 98 • What are the two types of sedimentary rocks? • A rock made of pieces of sand would be which type of sedimentary rock?

  47. By the end of class I will… • Be able to use sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous features to describe past environments. • Be able to sort rocks into their rock type based on their characteristics.

  48. Tuff • One other by-product of a volcano is tuff. • Tuff is formed when volcanic ash from a volcano is buried and compressed.

  49. Rock FeaturesA. Igneous i. Dike • A dike is a sheet of igneous rock that cuts across rock layers vertically at a steep angle. • A dike forms when magma intrudes into angled cracks. • A dike can be hundreds of kilometers long, and anywhere from a centimeters to many meters thick.