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Science is on its way back to the Moon

Science is on its way back to the Moon. LUNAR SCIENCE OVERVIEW Dr. Jim Garvin Chief Scientist NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center Jan. 29, 2008. The Context for Lunar Science Program : 2008 – 2020. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

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Science is on its way back to the Moon

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  1. Science is on its way back to the Moon LUNAR SCIENCE OVERVIEW Dr. Jim Garvin Chief Scientist NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center Jan. 29, 2008

  2. The Context for Lunar Science Program : 2008 – 2020 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 The Exploration Roadmap Lunar Outpost Buildup 1st Human CEV Flight 7th Human Lunar Landing Robotic Precursors Mars Development Commercial Crew/Cargo for ISS Space Shuttle CEV Development Crew Launch Development Lunar Lander Development Lunar Heavy Launch Development Earth Departure Stage Development Surface Systems Development

  3. Science is on its way back to the Moon Chandrayaan-1 (India, NASA SMD) Kaguya (Selene) (JAXA) LRO : 2008-2010+ (NASA ESMD-SMD) GRAIL: 2011-2012 (NASA SMD) ? Human Exploration!

  4. The Moon as a Unique Vantage Point for Solar System Exploration (from NRC, LEAG) • FINDING: The Moon offers a unique vantage point for certain aspects of Solar System exploration • Cornerstone for Early Planetary Processes • Volatile Record and Reservoirs • Testbed for Scientific Exploration of the Solar System • Astrobiology Cornerstone for Early Planetary Processes (oneexample) • Preserves the remnants of one style of planetary differentiation: Magma Ocean. • Illustrates a style of early planetary asymmetry that is related to early differentiation processes. • Illustrates a pathway of planetary evolution that is related to a style of planetary accretion and differentiation. • Illustrates the full crustal formational and magmatic history of a cooling planetary body. • Recorded and preserved the early impact environment of the inner solar system. • Interactions between a planetary surface and space are preserved in the lunar regolith. Garvin

  5. A Lunar Exploration-Enabled Science Approach: “Seek, In-Situ, Sample” RESPONSIVE to DISCOVERIES SEEK Orbital Reconnaissance • Where to look • How to test • The context • The foundation datasets (g, z, composition, space Wx, atmosphere, dust) SAMPLE Return rock and soil samples Lunar Systems Science: The Context for Unique Solar System Records (Moon) IN-SITU (surface) Experiments and Reconnaissance • Ground-truthing • Surface reconnaissance • Understanding the dust, atmosphere • Subsurface access • In situ age determination? • Definitive testing of hypotheses (ages) • Experiments to test biological adapation? Garvin

  6. LRO+ Future missions Lunar South Polar Region: Large Discovery Potential awaits (volatiles, T, geochem, topo) LP NS atop Clementine Imaging, Topo.

  7. High Priority Lunar Objectives (from NRC/adapted) • Overarching Lunar Objectives: • Understand the origin of the Moon (in context) • Understand the records the Moon uniquely preserves (today) • Understand collisional processes on atmosphere-less objects (as fn of g) • Understand aspects of the history of the Sun (as can be preserved) • Origin and Evolution of Life: • Geochemical and physical context for the origin of life (early planetary crusts) • Role of exogenic volatiles in the origin of life (and their delivery) • Role of basin-scale cosmic collisions in the origin of life on Earth • Preservation of early Earth crustal materials on the Moon • Geology (Solid Planet): • Origin and geochemical evolution of a silicate planetary crust in 3D • Interaction of lunar interior with crust, from the core on out • Understanding magmatic/volcanic history of the Moon in space and time • Understanding geologic materials as resources for human spaceflight • Understanding cosmic collisions and ballistic sedimentation and impact melts • Moon as a vantage point: • Farside-unique observations for microwave-based astrophysics • Lunar regolith stratigraphy and unique aspects of the solar wind (and events) • Understanding the Earth-Moon system as a “chronometer” for the impact flux • Enabling new observations of the Earth, the Universe, and of the Sun

  8. Lunar Science Traceability Example (notional)(Derived from TEMPE Mtg and NRC SCEM ’07 findings) Lunar Pathway “Theme” Science Focus Pursuits Activities Vantage Point • Evolution of the Solar System (via preserved lunar record) • Chronology and Timing of Major Solar System Events on the Moon • Absolute Age Determination of Key Events on the Moon via in situ methods • SPA Basin • Tycho • Youngest Volcanics How Did We Get Here? • Adaptability of Humans in Space • Impact of Space Environment (g, Rad, SPE’s) • Measurement of Genomic Responses to Space Radiation, lunar-Gravity • Lunar Surface • LDEF on Moon Where Are We Going? • Sustainability and Habitability of Earth (via lunar records) • Impact of Anthroprogenic vs. Natural Forcings on Earth System • Measurement of climate records tied to sun’s history in undisturbed lunar regolith • Mare regolith • Tycho melt sheet and regolith Are We Alone? • Life Beyond the Planet of Origin • Origin of C, H, O, N, P, S Based Life in the Solar System (via lunar records) • Detection of Life-Signs or Bio-markers in earliest lunar crustal or subcrustal materials (Earth rx?) • SPA Basin • Orientale • Trapped volatiles in impact melts? THE MOON REALLY MATTERS IN PLANETARY SCIENCE !

  9. VOLATILES Habitability Environs Regolith, Chronology, Flux Environments GEOLOGY Prepare for Human Exploration When • Where • Form • Amount Lunar Exploration-Enabled Science One Example Example Interlinked Science Themes Thematic Objectives The Moon as an Astrobiological target (basins, early crustal genesis, role of early volatiles, etc) 3D characteristics of regolith in time and impact flux (with chronology) ; Includes linkages to Earth, Mars, Mercury Dynamics and history of unique environments on Moon (polar, sub-crustal rocks and chemistry, volcanism, atmos./dust) Develop an understanding of the Moon in support of human exploration (hazards, topography, navigation, temperatures, environs, dust, Space Weather, electrostatic, Resources) Lunar NAC workshop and NRC “SCEM” developed the framework Garvin

  10. Lunar Exploration-Enabled Science at NASA SMD/ESMD are developing this now NRC lunar priorities (Tempe NAC, 2007, NRC SCEM 2007) Hypothesis driven (SMD) Small, robotic science “pathfinders” Hitch-hikers, Carriers, Suitcases Lunar Science missions LRO Human-capability driven (SMD, ESMD, SOMD) Discovery driven (SMD, ESMD) Science on human missions New, VSE enabled science Human on-site Activities NASA Lunar Missions support all 3 aspects of integrated scientific exploration Garvin

  11. National Academy of Sciences NRC SS Decadal (2003) lists priorities for the MOON (mission possibilities): Garvin

  12. What the Moon can deliver for science

  13. The Moon: NASA is already contributing via HST Hubble UV views of Aristarchus Crater, where unique deposits can be isolated… [Red: > 10 wt. % TiO2] Calibrated I/F

  14. The Moon is a spectacular, unique “natural laboratory” for science Shorty Crater at Apollo 17 (Taurus Littrow) – fresh lunar simple crater!

  15. Exploration as a new Science “context” Apollo MER Oppty Human/Robotic Spaceflight to the Moon will catalyze new science

  16. BACKUPS Dr. J. Garvin

  17. Lunar Science Investigations: One Viewpoint(derived from NRC SCEM) Moon as an Integrated System Hierarchy R O L E O F IMPACTS? Goals Volatiles Environments Geology Objectives Investigations Sources/Sinks Global Compositional Units Interactions (with solar wind) Measurements Measure H, H2O… Measure Dust, Atmos. ••• • • • Global Stratigraphy REDOX Polar Regolith evolution ••• ••• Measure Reactivity polar soil Absolute Chronology 3D Structure of “atmosphere” ••• Migration pathways? NASA SMD and ESMD are developing an integrated plan ••• Interior Structure ••• Electrostatics Exogenic volatiles? ••• ••• ••• Garvin

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