ACP United States History Robber Barons and Rebels Industrialization and Revolt
The Progressive Movement • I. The Rise of Industrial America • A. Captains of Industry or Dirty Rotten Scoundrels? • B. Inept Political Leadership • C. Corruption and Scandal • D. The Gilded Age
Presidents of the Era Cleveland Hayes Cleveland Harrison Garfield Arthur
Problems of Economic Growth • Concentration of great power • Instability • Absence of standards for health and safety • An unprotected labor force
Justifying Economic Power • Charles Darwin, Origin of Species, 1859 • Evolution; survival of the fittest; natural selection • William Graham Sumner and social Darwinism, 1870s • Laissez faire • Challenges to laissez faire: William Demarest Lloyd, Wealth against Commonwealth, 1894
William Graham Sumner, Yale professor, advocate of social Darwinism “Millionaires are a product of natural selection.”
Henry Demarest Lloyd “Nature is rich; but everywhere man, the heir of nature, is poor.” “Competition evolves itself into crime” Wealth Against Commonwealth, 1884
"We are born in a Pullman house. We are fed from a Pullman shop, taught in a Pullman school, catechized in the Pullman church and when we die we shall be buried in a Pullman cemetery and go to a Pullman hell."— Pullman employee on life in Pullman town, 1883 • "So long as all the increased wealth which modern progress brings goes but to build up great fortunes, to increase luxury and make sharper the contrast between the House of Have and the House of Want, progress is not real and cannot be permanent." • This is a passage from one of the most widely read American books in the 1880s, titled "Progress and Poverty." The author, Henry George, was highlighting the great puzzle of the era: Why did such great poverty exist at a time of such great progress and wealth? The question has been at the center of much of America's political life ever since.
II. The Early Labor Movement (1860-1894) • A. Sam Gompers • 1. Socialism • 2. Lesson of Tompkins Square – 1874 • B. The Knights of Labor – 1869 • C. Employee Relations 101 (How to crush strikes, deport radicals and keep the honest working man under your thumb) • 1. Great Uprising of 1877 • 2. Haymarket Square – 1886 • 3. American Federation of Labor -1887 • 4. Homestead Tragedy -1892 • 5. A.F.L. Convention – 1894 • 6. Pullman Strike – 1894 • a. Eugene V. Debs • b. In Re Debs • D. The Road Not Taken • 1. Socialists • 2. A.F.L. • Leftovers
Timeline • 1866 National Labor Union formed • 1869 Completion of the first transcontinental railroad • 1869 Knights of Labor organized • 1870 Standard Oil of Ohio incorporated • 1876 Telephone patented • 1877 Great Railroad Strike • 1879 Incandescent light bulb invented • 1879 Terrence Powderly became president of the Knights of Labor • 1882 First electricity supplied to eighty-five customers in NY City • 1882 Creation of the Standard Oil Trust • 1886 Haymarket Affair • 1886 Founding of the American Federation of Labor • 1889 Andrew Carnegie’s “Gospel of Wealth” • 1892 Homestead Strike • 1894 Pullman Strike • 1901 U.S. Steel Corporation formed • 1905 IWW founded
Blockade of Engines at Martinsburg, West Virginia The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
Burning of PA Railroad and Union Depot in Pittsburgh, PA Great Railroad Strike of 1877 Union Depot Burning in Pittsburgh
Flier inviting workers To a meeting at Haymarket Square in Chicago.
This document was created by August Spies after the riot to encourage action by workers in Chicago.