AMERICAN HISTORY 1607 – Present Day
Chapter 3, Section 1 • The English defeat of the Spanish Armada ended Spanish control of the seas. • England could start colonies in North America. • In April 1607, ships entered Chesapeake Bay and named their settlement Jamestown to honor their king, King James I.
First settlement was Jamestown in the colony of Virginia in 1607. • Captain John Smith arrived in 1608 to govern the colonists.
John Rolfe discovered how to grow tobacco and it was the first crop grown in England. • Relations with the Native Americans improved when Rolfe married the chief’s daughter Pocahontas. • The colonists would farm their own land and make a profit off of it. They became competitive.
Colonists who paid their own way to America were given 100 acres of land. • Colonists sent representatives to an assembly to make local laws.
The House of Burgesses met for the first time on July 30, 1619. End Section 1
Chapter 3, Section 2 • There were two religious groups in England: • Anglican Church = Puritans • Those who wanted to set up their own church = Separatist/Pilgrims
If the Separatist would settle in Virginia they could practice their religion freely. • They must share their profits with the company.
The Separatist are the pilgrims. • The Mayflower took Pilgrims to settle the Virginia Colony. • They stopped at Plymouth due to harsh winter. • The Virginia Company laws did not apply in Plymouth.
They developed the Mayflower Compact to provide laws to live by. • It was the beginning of a representative government or self government. • The Indians taught the Pilgrims how to hunt, fish, and grow crops.
John Winthrop was the governor of the Puritan settlements. • The Colony of Connecticut adopted a plan of government called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. • It was the first written constitution in America.
Chapter 3, Section 3 • New Amsterdam was controlled by the Dutch. New Amsterdam was located in the New Netherland colony. New Netherland was surrendered to the English forces and renamed New York.
It was a center of shipping to and from the America’s. It was a good seaport. • New Amsterdam was later named New York City.
In 1691, the English government allowed New York to elect a legislative government. • New Jersey attracted people by offering land, freedom of religion, trial by jury, and a representative assembly.
Pennsylvania was named after William Penn. He also wrote the first Pennsylvania constitution. • He attracted settlers by advertising through Europe in several different languages. • In 1701, Penn granted the colonists the right to elect representatives to a legislative assembly.
In 1704, three lower counties of Pennsylvania formed their own government and became the colony of Delaware. End Chapter 3 Notes
Chapter 4, Section 1 • Small businesses began popping up around New England colonies. • Large towns attracted furniture makers, blacksmiths, and printers. Women made candles and clothing for their families and to trade.
The Triangular Trade Route took items to the west Indies and Africa. • The Middle Passage was the worst for slaves because they had horrible conditions and treatment.
They produced cash crops. • The Southern Colonies of Maryland and Virginia relied on tobacco.
South Carolina and Georgia depended on rice. • Rice harvesting required so much strenuous work, so they had to have slaves work the crops. • Plantations were large farms in the South that were run by slaves.
Plantations were located on rivers so crops could be shipped to market by boat. • Slavery was the main reason for success in the south. • Most slaves lived on plantations. • Slaves were treated cruelly on plantations.
Chapter 4, Section 2 • The English Bill of Rights was created in 1689. It gave certain basic rights to all citizens. • It became part of the English law that American colonists shared. • It inspired the creation of the American Bill of Rights.
Navigation Act was passed in the 1650s. • It controlled the trade of goods between England and the colonies. • This prevented them from sending goods like sugar and tobacco anywhere but to England.
Some colonists smuggled and traded illegally. They ignored the laws. • Magna Carta = King John was forced to sign in 1215. It established a limited government. The power of the king or government was limited.
Charter colonies included: Connecticut and Rhode Island. They were established by settlers who were given rights and privileges.
Proprietary colonies were ruled by proprietors, people who were free to rule as they wished. • Proprietors were given land by Britain or the king. • Proprietary colonies included: Delaware, Maryland, and Pennsylvania
Royal Colonies were ruled by the king of Great Britain. • Royal colonies included: Georgia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. • In the colonies most women, servants, poor, and African Americans could not vote. Only white, land owning males.
The Great Awakening, 1720s through 1740s, was an increase in religious activity. Ministers preached with emotion. It led people to experience God and taught that they were responsible for their own actions. As a result, many new churches were formed.
In 1636, the Puritans established Harvard College, which was set up to teach ministers. • Enlightenment spread the idea that society could be improved through knowledge, reason, and science.
The best known American scientist was Benjamin Franklin. He invented the Franklin stove which was a furnace used to help warm houses. • Andrew Hamilton argued that free speech was a basic right of English people. End Section 2
Chapter 4, Section 3 • The French and British continued to fight as both countries expanded into each others territory. • The Native Americans helped the French. The French did not try to take away their land.
The Iroquois Confederacy was the most powerful. • The British and French continued to fight. There was a meeting in Albany, New York to discuss the threat of war.
Benjamin Franklin came up with the Albany Plan of Union. • It would have one government for 11 colonies and would unite them. • The colonies did not approve the Albany plan because they did not want to loose power of their colony.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut was the first Constitution of America. • It gave them the right to select judges, governors, and representatives to make laws. End Section 3
Chapter 4, Section 4 • The French and Indian War was the beginning of the Seven Year War. • William Pitt oversaw the war effort from London. • After the French and Indian War the British raised taxes to help with debt.
The Treaty of Paris marked an end of power in North America for France. • To prevent more fighting, Britain called a halt to the settlers westward expansion. • Proclamation of 1763 set the Appalachian Mountains as the temporary border for the colonies. End Chapter 4, Video Follows
Slave Codes • Slave codes are the laws passed in the Southern states that controlled and restricted enslaved people.
Quakers • Believed that every individual had an “inner light” that could guide him or her to salvation. • Believed each person could experience religious truth directly, which meant that church services and officials were unnecessary. • Believed everyone was equal in God’s sight.
Chapter 5 Section 1 • The Sugar Act in 1764 was to try and stop smuggling. They lowered the tax on molasses so that people would buy instead of smuggle. • Molasses is a syrup produced from raw sugar.
The Stamp Act placed a tax on all printed goods. • Ex: Newspapers, playing cards, etc.
Samuel Adams started the Son’s of Liberty. Members would protest the Stamp Act. • Townshend Act taxed imported goods only. Taxes were paid at the port upon entry. It taxed basic items that they were not able to produce.
Chapter 5, Section 2 • The redcoats and Bostonians began fighting and the redcoats killed 5 people. • The Boston Massacre was on March 5, 1770.
Crispus Attucks was the African American/dockworker that was killed in the Boston Massacre. • Colonial leaders used news of the Boston Massacre as propaganda against the British. • In 1772, Samuel Adams revived the committee of correspondence.
This was an organization that used meetings and letters to spread ideas to colonies. • Tea Act of 1773, it allowed tea to be sold to shopkeepers at a low price. They could ship tea without paying most of the taxes.
Colonists argued it was an attempt to crush the colonists’ liberty or freedom. • The Boston Sons of Liberty dressed as Indians and took 342 chests of tea and threw it overboard into the Boston Harbor. This was known as the Boston Tea Party.
King George III and Parliament punished the colonists of Massachusetts. They felt Boston must pay for the tea they ruined. • They passed the Coercive Acts which closed the Boston Harbor until they paid for the ruined tea.
With the harbors closed they could not get food shipped in. • The Coercive Acts were renamed the Intolerable Acts by the colonists. End Section 2
Chapter 5, Section 3 • The Continental Congress met in September of 1774. • They challenged British rule. • The Congress included Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, George Washington, and others.
Colonial troops were called minutemen. • The British, led by Thomas Gage, were getting ready for war. • Paul Revere and William Dawes rode to Lexington to warn that the British were coming.