Download
bioe 301 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
BIOE 301 PowerPoint Presentation

BIOE 301

97 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

BIOE 301

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. BIOE 301 Lecture Seven

  2. Four Questions • What are the problems in healthcare today? • Who pays to solve problems in healthcare? • How can we use science and technology to solve healthcare problems? • Once developed, how do new healthcare technologies move from the lab to the bedside?

  3. The Project – Part One • Write an editorial advocating a change in public health policy • Identify an important health problem • Carry out research to understand scope of problem and limitations of current health technologies • Propose a policy change to develop and/or implement solutions to the health problem • Write an editorial in support of your policy

  4. Project – Part One • Medline • http://www.rice.edu/fondren/ • Sample editorials • http://www.oneworld.net/article/view/71857/1/5294 • http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/01/10/AR2006011001542.html • http://www.economist.com/opinion/displayStory.cfm?Story_id=4221484&CFID=61903351&CFTOKEN=519df0b-32e6754a-5419-44a1-a79a-a9bf34a378b2

  5. Ovary

  6. Three Case Studies • Prevention of infectious disease • HIV/AIDS • Early detection of cancer • Cervical Cancer • Ovarian Cancer • Prostate Cancer • Treatment of heart disease • Atherosclerosis and heart attack • Heart failure

  7. Today: The process of developing a new medical technology

  8. Science of Understanding Disease Emerging Health Technologies Bioengineering Preclinical Testing Ethics of research Adoption & Diffusion Clinical Trials • Abandoned due to: • poor performance • safety concerns • ethical concerns • legal issues • social issues • economic issues Cost-Effectiveness

  9. Class Activity #1 – Gene Therapy Directions: • Place the articles in correct chronological order • Contextual clues in the selections • Your knowledge of the science of DNA and genes • Your recollection of events in the media. • Articles reflect current thought for the time • First article published in 1953; the last in 2003 • Discuss in group; come to consensus • Choose one member of your group to speak • Did your ideas about the sequence match each other? • What clues or events prompted you to make choice? • Do not discuss your ideas with other groups

  10. Science of Understanding Disease Emerging Health Technologies Bioengineering Preclinical Testing Ethics of research Adoption & Diffusion Clinical Trials • Abandoned due to: • poor performance • safety concerns • ethical concerns • legal issues • social issues • economic issues Cost-Effectiveness

  11. Question: • What is the difference between science and engineering?

  12. Definitions • Science • Body of knowledge about natural phenomena which is: • Well founded • Testable • Purpose is to discover, create, confirm, disprove, reorganize, and disseminate statements that accurately describe some portion of physical, chemical, biological world • “Science is the human activity of seeking natural explanations for what we observe in the world around us.”

  13. Definitions • Engineering • Systematic design, production and operation of technical systems to meet practical human needs under specified constraints • Time • $$ • Performance • Reliability • “Engineering. . . in a broad sense. . . is applying science in an economic manner to the needs of mankind “

  14. Definitions • What is the difference between science and engineering? • Science • Inquiry to better understand world around us • No practical goal necessary • Engineering • Use of science to solve real world problem in practical way

  15. SPECS FMEA Refine Design Engineering Design Method • Fashioning a product made for a practical goal in the presence of constraints • Six design steps: • 1. Identify a need • 2. Define the problem (goals, constraints) • 3. Gather information • 4. Develop solutions • 5. Evaluate solutions • 6. Communicate results • Papers, patents, marketing

  16. Class Activity #2 – Take Apart Directions: • You have been given a piece of equipment • Disassemble the equipment • Lay out the pieces in a way that shows the inter-relationships between the parts • What are the primary constraints you think the designers were trying to satisfy?

  17. Example: Cervical cancer detection • Science of precancer • Engineering solutions for precancer detection • 1. Identify a need • 2. Define the problem (goals, constraints) • 3. Gather information • 4. Develop solutions • 5. Evaluate solutions • 6. Communicate results

  18. Science of Precancer Normal Cervical Tissue Cervical Pre-Cancer • Diagnosis based on morphologic features • Nuclear size, shape, texture • Nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio

  19. Rejected Light Image Plane Rejected Plane Accepted Light Technology: Confocal Microscopy Sample Point Source Illumination Beamsplitter Pinhole Detector Webb, J. Investigative Dermatology,1995

  20. Example: Cervical cancer detection • Science of precancer • Engineering solutions for precancer detection • 1. Identify a need • 2. Define the problem (goals, constraints) • 3. Gather information • 4. Develop solutions • 5. Evaluate solutions • 6. Communicate results

  21. Confocal Microscope

  22. Normal Cervix Abnormal Cervix Imaging Endogenous Contrast

  23. LEEP Study

  24. Miniature Objective 7 mm outer diameter 22 mm long Liang et al., Appl. Opt., 2002. In Vivo Fiber Optic Confocal Microscope

  25. Portable system for clinical studies

  26. Miniature Microscopes Collaboration with M. Descour

  27. Example: Cervical cancer detection • Science of precancer • Engineering solutions for precancer detection • 1. Identify a need • 2. Define the problem (goals, constraints) • 3. Gather information • 4. Develop solutions • 5. Evaluate solutions • 6. Communicate results

  28. Journal Article

  29. Patent • www.uspto.gov • Diagnostic Imaging Patent

  30. The Project – Part Two • Design a new technology to solve a health problem and present a mock design of the new technology • Define the problem • Define the constraints • Develop an alternative solution that meets the constraints • Construct a prototype - Materials costs <$10 • Communicate results for an in class demonstration and design review

  31. Summary of Lecture 7 • Science • “Science is the human activity of seeking natural explanations for what we observe in the world around us.” • Engineering • Systematic design, production and operation of technical systems to meet practical human needs under specified constraints • Six steps of the engineering design method

  32. Assignments Due Next Time • Project 2