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Foundations for Training 1

Foundations for Training 1

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Foundations for Training 1

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  1. Foundations for Training 1 REC 1040

  2. Foundations for Training 1 • As a student, this course will require you to apply basic training and movement principles to health-related and performance-related components of fitness training. • You will create fitness activities and develop a basic individual fitness plan to achieve goals of health-related and performance-related components.

  3. Physical Fitness What is it? • Physical fitness is a set of attributes that people have or achieve relating to their ability to perform physical activity • For the purpose of this course, we will be looking at both Health-related components of fitness and Performance-related components of fitness.

  4. Health Related Components The main components of physical fitness and health are: • Cardiovascular • Muscular Strength • Muscular Endurance • Flexibility • Body Composition

  5. Cardiovascular Fitness • Cardiovascular fitness (also known as cardiorespiratory fitness) is the ability of the heart, lungs and vascular system to deliver oxygen-rich blood to working muscles during sustained physical activity.

  6. Cardiovascular Fitness • The benefits of cardiovascular fitness for the general population include: • Weight control by burning calories • Increased stamina by improving the effectiveness of your heart and lungs • Improved self image • Reduces health risks and cardiovascular disease • Improves mood by releasing endorphins

  7. Muscular Strength • Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert against a heavy resistance

  8. Muscular Endurance • Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to repeat a movement many times or to hold a particular position for an extended period of time

  9. Muscular Fitness • The benefits of resistance training for the general population include: • Muscle gain • Increase bone density • Increase your daily function in life • Promotes fat free body mass

  10. Flexibility • Flexibility is the degree to which an individual muscle will lengthen.

  11. Flexibility Training • The benefits of flexibility training for the general population include: • Reduces chance of injury • Reduces risk of low back pain • Reduces muscle soreness • Improves posture • Improves muscle coordination

  12. Body Composition • Body composition is the amount of fat in the body compared to the amount of lean mass (muscle, bones etc.).

  13. Performance-related Components The components of fitness that relate to performance and skill are: • Agility • Balance • Power • Speed • Coordination • Reaction Time

  14. Agility • Agility is the ability to change and control the direction and position of the body while maintaining a constant, rapid motion

  15. Balance • Balance is the ability to control or stabilize the body when a person is standing still or moving

  16. Coordination • Coordination is the ability to use the senses together with body parts during movement

  17. Speed • Speed is the ability to move your body or parts of your body swiftly. Many sports rely on speed to gain advantage over your opponents.

  18. Power • Power is the ability to move the body parts swiftly while applying the maximum force of the muscles. Power is a combination of both speed and muscular strength

  19. Reaction Time • Reaction Time is the ability to reach or respond quickly to what you hear, see, or feel.

  20. The F.I.T.T. Principle • The F.I.T.T. Principle is one of the foundations of exercise, a set of guidelines that help you set up a workout routine to fit your goals and fitness level while helping you get the most out of your exercise program.

  21. Frequency • Frequency is the number of times exercise is undertaken in a week. • The more times a person exercises the more often their body is put under stress. • Exercising between three and five times a week is the recommended amount to reach the minimum level of fitness.

  22. Frequency • Elite athletes have to train a lot more frequently, often several sessions a day. • Training very hard, every day, can also be harmful, even for a top-class athlete • This is why tracking the frequency is important.

  23. Intensity • Intensity is the level of difficulty of the exercise. • Ex. In cardiovascular training, working in a target zone of 60 to 80 per cent of the maximum heart rate is the level where fitness will usually increase.

  24. Intensity • When training for strength, the intensity is calculated in the same way. • A person can train within the target zone by finding the maximum weight they can lift and working to 60 to 80 per cent of that weight. • The Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion is an easy way to rate intensity.

  25. Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion • The Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) is a way of measuring physical activity intensity level. • Perceived exertion is how hard you feel like your body is working.

  26. Time • Time refers to how long an exercise sessions lasts. • 30 minutes, to include a warm-up, is the recommended length of a session in order to maintain good health and fitness.

  27. Type • Type refers to the variety of training a performer undertakes. • If general fitness is the aim, it can be a matter of personal preference to suit the individual.

  28. The following are useful rules to follow in an exercise session: • Keep your pulse at 60 to 80 per cent of its maximum for 20 minutes (the maximum can be calculated by using this formula: 220 – your age). • Warming-up is not included in the 20 minutes. • The time begins when the pulse is at 60 per cent of your maximum.

  29. F.I.T.T. in Detail • For more information on applying the F.I.T.T. principle to various aspects of fitness, please refer to the following information sheets by Fitness Zone online: • F.I.T.T. Principle for Flexibility • F.I.T.T. Principle for Cardiovasular Fitness • F.I.T.T. Principle for Muscular Endurance and Strength

  30. In addition to the F.I.T.T. Principle, it is very important to know and pay attention to the concepts of Overload and Specificity when creating a fitness plan • These principles of training are essential to the planning of a systematic training programme so that an individual can improve their fitness.

  31. Specificity • The specificity principle requires an understanding of the needs of the game or event you are taking part in. • Training must be geared towards the needs of the specific sporting activity in order to improve fitness of the body parts that the sport uses.

  32. Specificity For example: • A cyclist and a long-distance runner both need to train to improve their muscular endurance in their legs, but the training methods will be different; a cyclist will train on a bike whilst the runner will train by running!

  33. Specificity • It is important that the training activities are practised at match pace. • If you train slowly, you’ll compete slowly!

  34. Overload • The principle ofoverload involves having the body work at a greater rate than normal and then gradually increasing the stress, as it adapts to these exercise training levels.

  35. Overload • Exercising at the same level of difficulty all the time will: • Only maintain current fitness levels in the short-term • Have no effect on improvement in the long-term as the training starts to change your body tolerances.

  36. Overload • An athlete’s body needs to be gradually put under slightly more pressure, systematically, to continue to improve. • After five to six weeks there may be a need to change the training programme.

  37. Warm-Up and Cool-Down • Loosening-up and relaxation exercises performed before and after training are beneficial

  38. Benefits of a Warm-Up • Raising the body temperature, increasing respiration, heart rate, blood flow, metabolic rate, oxygen exchange • Increasing range of movement, decreasing muscle tension, preventing muscle, tendon, ligament strains • Increasing central nervous system activity, improving coordination, reducing reaction time

  39. Benefits of a Cool-Down • Helps speed recovery from a bout of exercise • Helps physiological systems return to normal levels