Foundations for Training 1 REC 1040
Foundations for Training 1 • As a student, this course will require you to apply basic training and movement principles to health-related and performance-related components of fitness training. • You will create fitness activities and develop a basic individual fitness plan to achieve goals of health-related and performance-related components. Edgesch.com
Physical Fitness What is it? • Physical fitness is a set of attributes that people have or achieve relating to their ability to perform physical activity • For the purpose of this course, we will be looking at both Health-related components of fitness and Performance-related components of fitness.
Health Related Components The main components of physical fitness and health are: • Cardiovascular • Muscular Strength • Muscular Endurance • Flexibility • Body Composition
Cardiovascular Fitness • Cardiovascular fitness (also known as cardiorespiratory fitness) is the ability of the heart, lungs and vascular system to deliver oxygen-rich blood to working muscles during sustained physical activity.
Cardiovascular Fitness • The benefits of cardiovascular fitness for the general population include: • Weight control by burning calories • Increased stamina by improving the effectiveness of your heart and lungs • Improved self image • Reduces health risks and cardiovascular disease • Improves mood by releasing endorphins
Muscular Strength • Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert against a heavy resistance
Muscular Endurance • Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to repeat a movement many times or to hold a particular position for an extended period of time
Muscular Fitness • The benefits of resistance training for the general population include: • Muscle gain • Increase bone density • Increase your daily function in life • Promotes fat free body mass
Flexibility • Flexibility is the degree to which an individual muscle will lengthen.
Flexibility Training • The benefits of flexibility training for the general population include: • Reduces chance of injury • Reduces risk of low back pain • Reduces muscle soreness • Improves posture • Improves muscle coordination
Body Composition • Body composition is the amount of fat in the body compared to the amount of lean mass (muscle, bones etc.).
Performance-related Components The components of fitness that relate to performance and skill are: • Agility • Balance • Power • Speed • Coordination • Reaction Time
Agility • Agility is the ability to change and control the direction and position of the body while maintaining a constant, rapid motion
Balance • Balance is the ability to control or stabilize the body when a person is standing still or moving
Coordination • Coordination is the ability to use the senses together with body parts during movement
Speed • Speed is the ability to move your body or parts of your body swiftly. Many sports rely on speed to gain advantage over your opponents.
Power • Power is the ability to move the body parts swiftly while applying the maximum force of the muscles. Power is a combination of both speed and muscular strength
Reaction Time • Reaction Time is the ability to reach or respond quickly to what you hear, see, or feel.
The F.I.T.T. Principle • The F.I.T.T. Principle is one of the foundations of exercise, a set of guidelines that help you set up a workout routine to fit your goals and fitness level while helping you get the most out of your exercise program.
Frequency • Frequency is the number of times exercise is undertaken in a week. • The more times a person exercises the more often their body is put under stress. • Exercising between three and five times a week is the recommended amount to reach the minimum level of fitness.
Frequency • Elite athletes have to train a lot more frequently, often several sessions a day. • Training very hard, every day, can also be harmful, even for a top-class athlete • This is why tracking the frequency is important.
Intensity • Intensity is the level of difficulty of the exercise. • Ex. In cardiovascular training, working in a target zone of 60 to 80 per cent of the maximum heart rate is the level where fitness will usually increase.
Intensity • When training for strength, the intensity is calculated in the same way. • A person can train within the target zone by finding the maximum weight they can lift and working to 60 to 80 per cent of that weight. • The Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion is an easy way to rate intensity.
Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion • The Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) is a way of measuring physical activity intensity level. • Perceived exertion is how hard you feel like your body is working.
Time • Time refers to how long an exercise sessions lasts. • 30 minutes, to include a warm-up, is the recommended length of a session in order to maintain good health and fitness.
Type • Type refers to the variety of training a performer undertakes. • If general fitness is the aim, it can be a matter of personal preference to suit the individual.
The following are useful rules to follow in an exercise session: • Keep your pulse at 60 to 80 per cent of its maximum for 20 minutes (the maximum can be calculated by using this formula: 220 – your age). • Warming-up is not included in the 20 minutes. • The time begins when the pulse is at 60 per cent of your maximum.
F.I.T.T. in Detail • For more information on applying the F.I.T.T. principle to various aspects of fitness, please refer to the following information sheets by Fitness Zone online: • F.I.T.T. Principle for Flexibility • F.I.T.T. Principle for Cardiovasular Fitness • F.I.T.T. Principle for Muscular Endurance and Strength
In addition to the F.I.T.T. Principle, it is very important to know and pay attention to the concepts of Overload and Specificity when creating a fitness plan • These principles of training are essential to the planning of a systematic training programme so that an individual can improve their fitness.
Specificity • The specificity principle requires an understanding of the needs of the game or event you are taking part in. • Training must be geared towards the needs of the specific sporting activity in order to improve fitness of the body parts that the sport uses.
Specificity For example: • A cyclist and a long-distance runner both need to train to improve their muscular endurance in their legs, but the training methods will be different; a cyclist will train on a bike whilst the runner will train by running!
Specificity • It is important that the training activities are practised at match pace. • If you train slowly, you’ll compete slowly!
Overload • The principle ofoverload involves having the body work at a greater rate than normal and then gradually increasing the stress, as it adapts to these exercise training levels.
Overload • Exercising at the same level of difficulty all the time will: • Only maintain current fitness levels in the short-term • Have no effect on improvement in the long-term as the training starts to change your body tolerances.
Overload • An athlete’s body needs to be gradually put under slightly more pressure, systematically, to continue to improve. • After five to six weeks there may be a need to change the training programme.
Warm-Up and Cool-Down • Loosening-up and relaxation exercises performed before and after training are beneficial
Benefits of a Warm-Up • Raising the body temperature, increasing respiration, heart rate, blood flow, metabolic rate, oxygen exchange • Increasing range of movement, decreasing muscle tension, preventing muscle, tendon, ligament strains • Increasing central nervous system activity, improving coordination, reducing reaction time
Benefits of a Cool-Down • Helps speed recovery from a bout of exercise • Helps physiological systems return to normal levels