Early Hazard Categorization In the early days of Civil Defense: 1. Attack, and 2. Natural Hazards
E.L. Quarantelli “To the category of natural hazards. . . has been added the relatively new category of technological accidents and mishaps. These are the disasters brought about by human error and the collective mistakes of groups.” (Quarantelli, 1984) Thus: (1) Attack (2) Natural Hazards (3) Technological Hazards
“Man-Made” Hazards “Miller and Fowlkes (1984) have argued that the term ‘technological disaster’ renders such events too impersonal in origin. They believe that such ‘accidents’ are due mainly to the excessive priority given to industrial profits and advocate the term ‘man-made disaster’ to indicate corporate responsibility.” (Smith 1996)
Post-Cold War Taxonomy 1. Natural 2. Technological 3. Man-made
Dr. David McEntire • Environmental • Biological • Disease Outbreaks • Infestations • Technological • Human Induced/Civil • Natural • Atmospheric • Geologic/Seismic • Hydrologic • Volcanic • Wildfire
John Carroll • Weather • Man-Made • Transport and Communication • Medical • Major Disturbance • Energy
Laurie Pearce, Gerard Hoetmer Pearce (2000) 1. Natural 2. Diseases, epidemics, infestation 3. Person-induced Hoetmer (1991) 1. Natural 2. Technological 3. Civil 4. Environmental
ISDR 2002 1. Natural 2. Technological 3. Environmental Degradation
“Environmental Degradation” • Land degradation • Deforestation • Wildland fires • Loss of biodiversity • Pollution of land, water, and air • Climate change • Sea-level rise • Ozone depletion
Temporal Components • Rapid Onset: Flash floods, tornadoes, earthquakes • Slow Onset: Drought, heat waves, cold waves • Medium-Term Onset: Flooding, hurricanes
Spatial Components • Diffuse Hazards: Droughts, heat waves • Concentrated Hazards: Chemical spills, train derailments
The “Loss” Component Expected or possible human and material loss: • Low • Medium • Heavy
Data Limitations • Vague/inaccurate • Unavailable • Poorly collected • Difficult to collect • Sketchy • Exaggerated • Underestimated • Minimized
Today’s Threefold Distinctions • Natural • Technological • Man (or human) Made (or caused) or Civil or Willful • Natural • Man-Made • Hybrid (combined natural and man-made)
Hazard Classification Trends Disagreement--whether to: • Expand classification schemes. OR • Reduce hazard classifications.
On Classification by Origin “ . . . in many parts of the world, deforestation has resulted in increased runoff, which then leads to catastrophic downstream flooding. Is this a natural or a socially induced hazard? Or consider the use of technology to control nature, such as dams and levees. . . Is a wet-year levee break and the subsequent flooding that follows a technological, natural, or environmental hazard?” (Cutter, 2001)
On Classification by Origin “Although I stopped using the natural/technological disaster distinction long ago, I have always felt that there are other features that might be used to start to distinguish certain categories of disasters. . . . no single dimension is enough on which to base a typology.” (Quarantelli, 1998a)
On Classification by Origin “As we have done a number of times before, we want to restate that to pursue the current popular fad of distinguishing between so-called natural disasters and technological disasters is to pursue an unfruitful path. There are differences between disasters, but they do not result from their supposed source in nature or technology, a simple minded common sense distinction at best.” (Quarantelli, 1987)
On Classification: Other Criteria “. . . disasters caused by technological agents constitute a distinct genre because the social and behavioral patterns that occur in emergencies and disasters involving technological agents differ from those that are commonly observed in natural disasters, and because the two types of events tend to differ in their short- and longer-term consequences.” (Tierney, Lindell and Perry, 2001)
On Classification: Other Criteria “. . . Natural hazards result from a lack of control, whereas technological hazards result from a loss of control.” (Pearce, 2000)
Areas of Distinction 1. Causation differs. 2. Reactions differ. 3. Consequences differ.
Continuation of Distinctions • Assists in thinking about causes, sources, consequences and differing reactions to hazard types. • Broadens awareness of fuller range of hazards and stakeholders. • Assists in moving forward with areas such as riskassessments and communicating with the public.
McEntire: Hazard Relationships A. Natural hazards may initiate other natural hazards. B. Natural hazards may initiate other technological hazards. C. Technological hazards may initiate other natural/environmental hazards.
McEntire: Hazard Relationships D. Natural/environmental hazards may initiate other biological/natural hazards. E. Human-induced/civil hazards may initiate other technological/biological hazards. F. Other unique combinations.