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Art History

Art History

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Art History

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Timeline Art History

  2. How did it all start? • Art began over 27,000 years ago • As humans became smarter their imagination and ability to create art increased • Art can be broken up over the span of time into eras and Movements: • Pre-historic & Pre-Columbian • Egyptian • Greek, & Roman • Medieval • Renaissance & Baroque • Modern • Contemporary

  3. Pre-HistoricArtEurope in 30,000 BC – 2,500 BC • People live in caves & survive by hunting and gathering that gradually evolve into learning how to use tools to make things • No organized government or religion so art is made for practical purposes to help with hunt or please natural forces • Art is made from natural resources like crushed berries and rock and sticks for brushes Caves of Lascaux 15,000 BC Venus of Willendorf 24,000 – 22,000 BC Stonehenge 15,000 BC

  4. Egyptian3100 BC – 30 BC • First civilization to develop literature, science, mathematics and large-scale, unified & organized government • Led by a Pharaoh whom all artwork was created for & about • Egyptians were religious believing in many gods, the after life, and specific practices preparing and caring for the dead • Sculpture and Paintings are more realistic than pre-historic art, but remain simplisticand distorted using odd figural juxtapositions • Massive architectural monuments were built in the form of Pyramids to serve as a tomb for the Pharaoh • Book of the Dead • 3100 BCE – 30 BCE • Nefertiti Bust • 1345 BCE • Great Sphinx of Giza, • 2558 - 2532 BC

  5. Greek850 BC – 31 BC • First glimpse at high realism in art • Perfection in art is more important that portraying reality • Symmetry in sculptural work is crucial to the Greeks • Temples are created to pay tribute to Gods and Goddesses • Ceiling-less architecture is more about the attributed God or Goddess rather than cover from the elements • Clay vessels are created for function, story telling and aesthetics • Very few Greek artworks remain due to the Romans wiping out much of the Greek Culture • Nefertiti Bust • 1345 BCE • Nefertiti Bust • 1345 BCE • Nefertiti Bust • 1345 BCE

  6. Roman500 BC – 476 AC • Heavily influenced by the Greek era • Roman art is more functional than religious and celebrates the Empire and Emperor • The Romans developed many advanced architectural features such as the “aqueduct” vaulted ceilings and domes made possible by their development of concrete • Realism is more important than perfection figures are sculpted and painted to looks as they do in reality • Paintings and other artworks are no longer intact or even remain due to the fall of Rome The Colosseum 70–80 AD Paintings inside Villa of Mysteries in Pompeii 79 AD Augustus of Prima Porta 15 A.D. Roman Art

  7. Pre-Columbian30,000 BC – 1,600 CE • Africa, North America, South and Central America were inhabited with Natives pre-European conquest. • Native American populations in all three Americas dwindled and were extinguished due to European disease, massacres and territorial wars in which the Europeans succeeded in expanding its civilization into the current Americas. • The Africa’s separated into countries and was able to maintain many tribal communities while other parts were colonized by the Europeans much like in the Americas. • Nigerian Sculpture • 500BC - AD500 • Native American Pottery • 1,000 BCE – 1492 CE • Mayan Temples • 250– 900 CE

  8. Medieval500 – 1400 • Illuminated Letter & Manuscripts • 400 – 600 • Considered “The Dark Ages” • Most common people were illiterate so artwork took the place of words in books and windows of cathedrals • Very futile time – most artwork didn’t survive and those that did were religious in nature preserved by the church • Figures in painting and sculpture begin to approach realism with slightly distorted proportions and lack of value • Cathedral Stained Glass Windows • 500 – 1400 • Giotto di BondoneOgnissanti Madonna, • 1310

  9. Renaissance1400 – 1500 • David • Michelangelo • 1501-04 • A rebirth of art after the dark and depressing “dark ages” • Art is Primarily religious in nature that starts off flat, unrealistic disproportionate figures to later evolve into highly realistic proportion figures • Tempera is used initially in painting until Oil paint is developed later heightening the realism and color quality that artist can generate • Birth of the “Triangle Composition,” “Perspective,” & “Self Portraiture” • The Mona LisaLeonardo Da Vinci • 1503-06 • The Tribute MoneyMasaccio • 1425

  10. Baroque1600 – 1750 • The Conversion of St. Paul • Caravaggio • 1600-01 • Mainly in Europe • Oil Paint is used to create dramatic imagery using high contrast in lights and darks called ”chiaroscuro” • Eventually moves into a very frilly and ornate style called Rococo • Subject matter is generally of a religious nature or portraits of the wealthy • The Kitchen Maid • Johannes Vermeer • 1658 • The Garden of Love • Rubens • 1633

  11. ImpressionismFrance, 1865 – 1885 • Started in France • Light and visual sensation are more important realism • Thick, loose brush strokes are used to capture the life and light of a scene, situation or object • Children Playing at the Beach • Mary Casatt • 1884 • The Star • Edgar Degas • 1876-77 • Grainstack • Claude Monet • 1890

  12. Post-ImpressionismFrance, 1885 – 1910 • Café Terrace at Night • Vincent Van Gogh • 1888 • Started in France • Uses thick textural applications of paint • Color choices are brighter and bolder than that of Impressionism • The simplification and exaggeration of color and shape begin here creating a path for “Expressionism” to take place next • At the Moulin Rouge • Lautrec • 1892-95 • Still Life with Skull • Cezanne • 895-1900

  13. ExpressionismGermany, 1900 – 1935 • Started in Germany and moved into France (Fauvism)Conveys feeling and emotion rather than direct representations of reality • Use violent and harsh elements like line, shape and color to convey mood • This way of using the elements and principles was a reaction against traditional art methods and become a vehicle for social truth and bitterness after WWI • The Yellow Cow • 1911 • Oil on Canvas • I and Village • Mark Chagall • 1911 • The Scream • Edvard Munch • 1893

  14. Cubism1905 – 1920 • Started in France • Influenced by tribal art of Africa • Analytic Cubism: Showing a subject by spreading out pieces across the canvas • Synthetic Cubism: Showing a subject’s different sides/angles from different viewpoints or distance. • Cubism uses simplified shapes, colors, patterns and lines to show the figure, and everyday scenes and objects. • House at L’Estaque • Georges Braque • 1908 • Still Life with Checked Table Cloth • Juan Gris • 1915 • Guernica • Pablo Picasso • 1937

  15. Surrealism1917 – 1950 • The Two Fridas • Frida Kahlo • 1939 • Started in France and spread across the globe • Expresses the imagination and dream like states using realistic & unrealistic art techniques • Art that is free from conscious control or hallucinatory scenes that defy common sense are more important than depicting reality accurately • Time Transfixed • Rene Magritte • 1938 • The Persistence of Memory • Salvador Dali • 1931

  16. Abstract Expressionism1940s – 1950s • Started in the US – New York, East Hampton • Relied on Instinct, action and art materials • The technique in using art materials is more important than the concept Question: What type of art is an artist creating when they focus on elements and principles not subject matter? Answer: Formalism • Composition VIII • Wassily Kandinsky • 1983 • No. 10 • Mark Rothko • 1950 • Autumn Rhythm • Jackson Pollock • 1950

  17. Pop Art1960s • Started in England & US • A reaction to Mass Media - TV, radio, magazines & pop culture in general • Used a lot of symbolism, simplistic compositions, repurposing of materials. • The social message was more important than the art process Question: What type of sculptural art can be seen from all sides? Answer: In-the-round • Lipstick (Ascending) on Caterpillar Tracks • Claus Oldenbuerg • 1969 • Marilyns • Andy Warhol • 1968 • Hopeless • Roy Lichtenstein • 1963