GPC 126 Physiological Psychology Psychopharmacology Lecture 5 Dean Owen, Ph.D., LPCC METU-NCC Spring 2014
This presentation has been created to assist in the mastery of the material contained in the text Foundations of Physiological Psychology by Neil R. Carlson All of the material contained in the presentation is drawn from the text. Lecture 5
1. Review of basic definitions of pharmacological terms and phrases Plan for the day 2. Review the basic categories of psychoactive drugs. 3. Discuss specific classes of psychoactive drugs and their actions & effects.
The scientific study of the actions of substances and how they affect all three domains of human behavior (cognitive, affective, and psycho-motor). Psychopharmacology
Both naturally occurring as well as manufactured substances are studied because of their psychoactive characteristics. Psycho-pharmacology The basic questions are : What do these substances do? How do they work?
What does it mean for a drug to be PSYCHOACTIVE? A psychoactive drug, psycho-pharmaceutical, or psychotropic refers to any chemical substance that can migrate across the blood-brain barrier and affects the central nervous system causing changes to brain function. These changes in brain functioning can result in further changes to: Psychopharmacology Source: ttp://www.nt.gov.au/health/healthdev/health_promotion/bushbook/volume2/chap1/sect1.htm
These changes in brain functioning can result in further changes to: Overt Behavior ADD/ADHD Attention deficit disorder Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Psychopharmacology Source: ttp://www.nt.gov.au/health/healthdev/health_promotion/bushbook/volume2/chap1/sect1.htm
What does it mean for a drug to be PSYCHOACTIVE? Perception Lysergic acid diethylamide LSD Psychopharmacology Source: ttp://www.nt.gov.au/health/healthdev/health_promotion/bushbook/volume2/chap1/sect1.htm
What does it mean for a drug to be PSYCHOACTIVE? Mood Elavil Wellbutrin Psychopharmacology Source: ttp://www.nt.gov.au/health/healthdev/health_promotion/bushbook/volume2/chap1/sect1.htm
What does it mean for a drug to be PSYCHOACTIVE? Consciousness Sedatives/hypnotics Psychopharmacology Source: ttp://www.nt.gov.au/health/healthdev/health_promotion/bushbook/volume2/chap1/sect1.htm
What does it mean for a drug to be PSYCHOACTIVE? Psychopharmacology Cognition Stimulants and others…. Source: ttp://www.nt.gov.au/health/healthdev/health_promotion/bushbook/volume2/chap1/sect1.htm
Drug Action: The specific interaction or mechanism by which substances interact with neural receptors Psychopharmacology Drug Effect: The specific and often widespread changes in physiological or psychological functioning.
History of Drug Use Archeological evidence at least 10,000 BCE Historical evidence from at least 5,000 BCE Cannabis Betel Nut Psychopharmacology Coca Leaves
History of Drug Use Seems that psychoactive substances have always been with us…from the beginning of man……as medicines to heal and bring relief….and to kill….. Some of these substances include…. Psychopharmacology
History of Drug Use Psychopharmacology Betel Nut
Psychopharmacology Coca Leaves (cocaine)
Psychopharmacology Used by native American cultures for more than 2000 years for healing and spiritual/religious ceremonies Peyote Cactus
The book of Pên-ts’ao Ching, attributed to the Emperor Shen-nung of about 2000 B.C.E. provides the first historical evidence of the medical use of cannabis. Used to treat: Menstrual fatigue Gout Rheumatism Malaria Constipation As anesthesia prior to surgery. Used widely across Asia to: Stimulate appetite of sick people Induce sleep Diarrhea Psychopharmacology Cannabis
Alcohol • Earliest evidence of wine production comes from Georgia….7000 BCE Psychopharmacology Beer is proof that God loves us and wants us to be happy.l Behold the rain which descends from heaven upon our vineyards, there it enters the roots of the vines, to be changed into wine, a constant proof that God loves us, and loves to see us happy. Benjamin Franklin….
Second most common drug in the world Tobacco Long used in the Americas and brought to Europe by Columbus…. Psychopharmacology
Tobacco Entheogen: psychoactive substance used in religious ceremonies….hallucinogen Smoke carried prayers upward toward the “Great Spirit”….. Psychopharmacology Second most common drug in the world
Family Medicine Psychopharmacology Herbal tea Tavuk çorbası
Folk Medicine Psychopharmacology The healing practices and ideas of body physiology and health preservation known to some in a culture, transmitted informally as general knowledge, and practiced or applied by anyone in the culture having prior experience. Source: Acharya, Deepak and Shrivastava Anshu (2008): Indigenous Herbal Medicines: Tribal Formulations and Traditional Herbal Practices, Aavishkar Publishers Distributor, Jaipur- India. ISBN 978-81-7910-252-7. pp 440.
Folk Medicine The history of Islamic medicine has deep roots in Azerbaijan. Early man used herbs and vegetation in his first efforts to cure illnesses. The experience he gained during the centuries was passed down generation to generation and developed into folk medicine. With the appearance of writing, the development of oral and written branches of folk medicine became separated. Scientific medicine became based on the written word. Psychopharmacology Source: Acharya, Deepak and Shrivastava Anshu (2008): Indigenous Herbal Medicines: Tribal Formulations and Traditional Herbal Practices, Aavishkar Publishers Distributor, Jaipur- India. ISBN 978-81-7910-252-7. pp 440.
Modern psychopharmacology Modern psychopharmacology began with the use of psychiatric drugs to treat psychological problems primarily through sedation using opiates and barbituates. Laudanum (tincture of opium) Early patent medicines contained opium and were powerful narcotics. These were medicines sold “over the counter”…no prescription or doctor’s order was required. Psychopharmacology
Modern psychopharmacology In the early stages, psychopharmacology was primarily used for sedation. Psychopharmacology
Modern psychopharmacology During the 1950s drugs began to be used for the treatment of mental disorders : Chlorpromazine for psychoses, Lithium carbonate for mania, Tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, benzodiazepines, for treatment of depression Psychopharmacology
Modern psychopharmacology Since 1960: Revolution in pharmaceutical research and manufacturing. Psychopharmacology Rational Drug Design (RDD)
Modern psychopharmacology Rational drug design refers to the process by which a specific biological target is identified and then a specific molecule is created to affect it. This represents targeted and highly specific medication creation….rather than adapting natural substances which may have medicinal qualities. Psychopharmacology
This revolution has been pushed by: 1. Better research methods: Placebo-controlled, double-blind studies. Psychopharmacology
This revolution has been pushed by: 2. Better methods for analyzing blood chemistry Psychopharmacology
This revolution has been pushed by: 3. Dramatic increase in biochemical brain research into the effects of psychoactive substances on brain functioning. Psychopharmacology
This revolution has been pushed by: 4. Rapidly expanding understanding of the role and function of neurotransmitters. Psychopharmacology
Psychotropic substances work by…………. Psychopharmacology Changing the way neurons communicate with each other…..
Psychoactive drugs exert their sensory and behavioral effects almost entirely through action on neurotransmitters, and modifying one or more aspects of synaptic transmission. Drugs may act by: Psychopharmacology 1) serving as a chemical that triggers the action of a neurotransmitter 2) inhibiting neurotransmitter synthesis;
Drugs may act by 3) preventing storage of neurotransmitter in the presynaptic vesicle; 4) stimulating or inhibiting neurotransmitter release; 5) stimulating or blocking postsynaptic receptors; 6) inhibiting neurotransmission breakdown; or 7) blocking neurotransmitter by the presynaptic neuron. Psychopharmacology
A second major mechanism by which psychotropic substances exert their influence is by modifying hormone level throughout the body…. Psychopharmacology Hormones A hormone (from Greek ''ὁρμή'' - "impetus") is a chemical released by one or more cells that affects cells in other parts of the organism. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. It is essentially a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one cell to another.
Hormones….. Hormones regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral activities, including digestion, metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood. Generally, only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. Psychopharmacology Source: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm/summary/v053/53.1.gibson.html
Hormones arechemicals released by one or more cells that affects cells in other parts of the organism. It is essentially a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one cell to another. Hormones trigger responses in cells causing them to behave differently. Endocrine hormone: secreted (released) directly into the bloodstream, while exocrine hormones are secreted directly into a duct, and from the duct they either flow into the bloodstream or they flow from cell to cell by diffusion in a process known as paracrine signaling. Psychopharmacology
Differences between hormones and neurotransmitters: 1. A hormone can perform functions over a larger spatial and temporal scale than can a neurotransmitter. 2. Hormonal signals can travel virtually anywhere in the circulatory system, whereas neural signals are restricted to pre-existing nerve tracts Psychopharmacology
Differences between hormones and neurotransmitters: 3. Assuming the travel distance is equivalent, neural signals can be transmitted much more quickly (in the range of milliseconds) than can hormonal signals (in the range of seconds, minutes, or hours). Neural signals can be sent at speeds up to 100 meters per second. 4. Neural signaling is an all-or-nothing (digital) action, whereas hormonal signaling is an action that can be continuously variable as dependent upon hormone concentration Psychopharmacology
Classes of Psychoactive Drugs Psychopharmacology
Depressants • Stimulants • Opiates • Hallucinogens • Neruoleptics (antipsychotics) Psychopharmacology
CNS Depressants Inhibit neurological activity-Slow down brain activity • Depressants (hypnotics or sedative)s. These drugs slow and inhibit neurological activity. Depressants produce fatigue in the user. Alcohol, antihistamines, barbiturates and the prescription drug Valium are examples of depressants. Psychopharmacology Common usage medically and illicitly. Anti-Anxiety Lowered blood pressure Pain relief Lowered heart rate Sedation Slowed respiration Muscle relaxation Complete anesthesia Anticonvulsant Death
Behavioral Stimulants: Caffeine and Nicotine Cocaine, Ecstasy, and amphetamines (diet meds.) • Stimulants increase brain activity. Commonly used stimulants are caffeine and nicotine. Amphetamine and cocaine are also stimulants. Some stimulants are used recreationally and others, such as anti-depressants, have medicinal purposes and are available by prescription. Psychopharmacology
Psychopharmacology Military Breakfast
Psychopharmacology Caffeine: A powerful CNS stimulant
3. Opiates: pain killers heroin morphine and codeine • Opiates alleviate painful sensations. Opiates are derived from opium and produce effects by interacting with opiate receptors in the brain. Opium is naturally produced in opium poppies. Codeine and morphine are clinically-administered opiates used to treat pain. The illegal drug heroin is an opiate. Opiates are highly addictive. Psychopharmacology Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from poppy-derived thebaine. It is a narcotic analgesic generally indicated for relief of moderate to severe pain. This med is commonly traded on the street and now represents a significant drug addiction hazard in many countries.
3. Opiates: Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from poppy-derived thebaine. It is a narcotic analgesic generally indicated for relief of moderate to severe pain. This med is commonly traded on the street and now represents a significant drug addiction hazard in many countries. OxyContin or Roxicodone Psychopharmacology