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Martin B. Lahr, M.D., M.P.H.* Kenneth D. Rosenberg, M.D., M.P.H. †‡ Jodi A. Lapidus, Ph.D. ‡ PowerPoint Presentation
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Martin B. Lahr, M.D., M.P.H.* Kenneth D. Rosenberg, M.D., M.P.H. †‡ Jodi A. Lapidus, Ph.D. ‡

Martin B. Lahr, M.D., M.P.H.* Kenneth D. Rosenberg, M.D., M.P.H. †‡ Jodi A. Lapidus, Ph.D. ‡

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Martin B. Lahr, M.D., M.P.H.* Kenneth D. Rosenberg, M.D., M.P.H. †‡ Jodi A. Lapidus, Ph.D. ‡

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  1. Bedsharing and maternal smoking in a population-based survey of new mothers:Analysis of the 1998-1999 Oregon PRAMS Dataset Martin B. Lahr, M.D., M.P.H.* Kenneth D. Rosenberg, M.D., M.P.H. †‡ Jodi A. Lapidus, Ph.D. ‡ * Oregon Department of Human Services, Disability Determination Services † Oregon Department of Human Services, Office of Family Health ‡ Oregon Health & Science University, Dept. of Public Health and Preventive Medicine Eleventh Annual Maternal and Child Health Epidemiology Conference Miami, FL, December 9, 2005

  2. BACKGROUNDMETHODSRESULTSDISCUSSION

  3. SIDS Mortality and Prone Sleep Position 1983-2002 “Back to Sleep” Campaign AAP Recommendations Sources: Mortality data from the CDC, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/dvs/mortdata.htm. Prone sleep prevalence data from Task Force on Infant Sleep Position and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Pediatrics 2000;105:650-656

  4. PNN Infant Mortality per 100,000 Live Births 160 350 140 300 120 250 100 200 SIDS 80 Unknown 150 60 Suffocation bed 100 Suffocation other 40 PNN IMR (right axis) 50 20 0 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

  5. Racial disparities in SIDS mortality, 1989-2001 3.0 3.00 Black 2.5 2.50 2.0 2.00 White 1.5 1.50 Rate per 1000 live born 1.0 1.00 Total 0.5 0.50 0.0 0.00 Ratio Ratio of Black to white deaths 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1989 Year Mortality data from the CDC, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/dvs/mortdata.htm.

  6. SIDS: public health burden • SIDS remains the third leading cause of infant mortality and the number one cause of postneonatal infant mortality • Overall, 0.57 deaths per 1000 live born (2002) • 22.7% of all postneonatal infant deaths (2002) • The decline in SIDS mortality that followed the “Back to Sleep” campaign has plateaued • Public health practitioners seek other modifiable risk factors for SIDS

  7. Oregon PRAMS “Oregon PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a project of the DHS Office of Family Health with support from the national Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS collects data on maternal attitudes and experiences prior to, during, and immediately after pregnancy for a sample of Oregon women.”

  8. BACKGROUNDMETHODSRESULTSDISCUSSION

  9. Oregon PRAMS • Stratified, random within strata, over-sampling of first five strata • Hispanics • Non-Hispanic (NH) blacks • NH Asians & Pacific Islanders • NH American Indians & Alaskan Natives • NH whites with low birthweight babies • NH whites with normal birthweight babies • Weighted 1) to Oregon’s population, 2) for non-response, and 3) for non-coverage

  10. Oregon PRAMS • Monthly sample from birth certificates • Nov. 1998-Oct. 1999 • 2919 surveys mailed • 1867 surveys completed • Mixed mode: • 1st mailing – 1308 responses • 2nd mailing - 230 • Computer-assisted telephone interview – 329 • 73.5% strata-weighted response

  11. PRAMS Response • 1867 completed • 53 excluded • babies were no longer alive and/or no longer living with mother • 38 excluded • did not indicate whether or not their babies were alive and living with mother • 1776 eligible for analysis. • 32 did not answer bedsharing question • 1758 (99% of those eligible) included in the analysis.

  12. “Always” and “almost always” responses combined as “frequent” bedsharing for logistic regression. “Sometimes” and “never” responses combined as “infrequent” bedsharing for logistic regression. Analysis performed using SUDAAN 8.0.1  Always  Almost always  Sometimes  Never PRAMS Question 62. Maternal-infant bedsharing. • 62. How often does your new baby sleep in the same bed with you? Check only one.

  13. Race/ethnicity Maternal education Maternal age Parity Marital status Urban vs. mixed density vs. rural county of residence Initiation of prenatal care Adequacy of prenatal care WIC enrollment Birthing hospitals by size Insurance - at labor & delivery and current Family income Infant gender Infant birthweight Bed-sharing status Breastfeeding duration Smoker before, during or after pregnancy PRAMS mode of administration Potential confounders

  14. BACKGROUNDMETHODSRESULTSDISCUSSION

  15. Bedsharing prevalence among respondents

  16. Smoking prevalence among respondents

  17. Factors associated with postpartum smoking • Black, white and Native American race • Younger maternal age • Less maternal education • Single marital status • Lower income • Oregon Health Plan • WIC enrollment • Shorter duration of breastfeeding • Rural or frontier residence

  18. Prevalence of bedsharing by maternal prenatal smoking status 12.3% of the respondents reported smoking during the third trimester

  19. Prevalence of bedsharing by maternal postpartum smoking status 17.1% of the respondents reported current smoking

  20. Multivariable logistic regression: maternal smoking & frequent* bedsharing * frequent = always or almost always, as compared to infrequent (sometimes, never) † adjusted for race/ethnicity, mother’s age, education and marital status, income, breastfeeding status, WIC enrollment, health insurance and county of residence

  21. BACKGROUNDMETHODSRESULTSDISCUSSION

  22. New Zealand Cot Death Study • Population-based case-control study • 393 cases and 1592 controls • Data collected 1987-1990 • Multiple publications based on same dataset, beginning in 1992 • Confirmed that prone infant sleep position was a major modifiable risk factor for SIDS • Looked for other modifiable risk factors

  23. New Zealand Cot Death Study • Initial publication 1992 reported that bedsharing was a risk factor for SIDS, OR 2.02 (1.35-3.04) • Did not stratify subjects • 1993 reported the association between bedsharing and SIDS was only seen among Maoris, not non-Maoris • 1994 reported this association only among smoking mothers, not nonsmoking mothers • Interaction seen among both Maoris and non-Maoris • Association of bedsharing & SIDS among those of Maori race was due to higher prevalence of smoking (confounder) among Maoris

  24. Published studies on SIDS & bedsharing

  25. Published studies on SIDS & bedsharing

  26. Published studies on SIDS & bedsharing

  27. Published studies on SIDS & bedsharing

  28. Published studies on SIDS & bedsharing

  29. Published studies on SIDS & bedsharing

  30. Published studies on SIDS & bedsharing

  31. Published studies on SIDS & bedsharing

  32. Published studies on SIDS & bedsharing

  33. Published studies on SIDS & bedsharing Summary of studies • 8 uncontrolled case series raising a question of risk • 9 large case control studies • 3 did not report results stratified by maternal smoking status but none found an association between bedsharing & SIDS (1,2,3) • 6 provided stratified results • 3 found no association between SIDS and bedsharing among nonsmoking mothers; among smoking mothers, risk was increased (4,5,6) • 1 found an increased risk for infants < 11 weeks old, adjusted for maternal smoking, but not > 11 weeks old; and an increased risk for smoking mothers but not nonsmokers (7) • 2 found no association between SIDS and bedsharing among nonsmoking mothers of infants > 11 weeks old but did find a risk for infants < 8-11 weeks old and for all infants of smoking mothers (8,9)

  34. Revised AAP recommendations – October 2005 * “Bed sharing is not recommended during sleep.   Infants may be brought into bed for nursing or comforting, but should be returned to their own crib or bassinet when the parent is ready to return to sleep.   However, there is growing evidence that room sharing (infant sleeping in a crib in parent's bedroom) is associated with a reduced risk of SIDS.   The AAP recommends a separate but proximate sleeping environment.”  * http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/peds.2005-1499v1

  35. Conclusions • In Oregon, women who smoke are no less likely to bedshare than women who do not smoke, despite the increased risk of SIDS. • The results for prenatal and postpartum smoking mothers are similar. All told 16% of the infants sometimes slept with mothers who smoked during and/or after pregnancy and 7% did so frequently. • The results are similar across all ethnic and racial groups. • Current epidemiological evidence cannot distinguish between risks associated with prenatal vs. risks associated with postpartum smoking. • In Oregon, if not elsewhere, the message that smoking mothers should not bedshare is not being effectively disseminated.

  36. Recommendations • Greater public health efforts are needed to discourage either prenatal or postpartum smoking mothers from bedsharing. • Bedsharing should be discouraged for infants less than 3 months of age, pending further research; young infants brought to bed to breastfeed should be returned to their crib for sleeping. • There is little or no additional risk for infants > 3 months of age bedsharing with nonsmoking mothers and bedsharing conveys benefits to both mother and infant; the AAP recommendations go beyond what is scientifically supportable. • Additional research is needed on the risks and benefits of bedsharing in adult beds by parents and infants, particularly regarding modifying variables (e.g. infant age, duration and frequency of bedsharing, breastfeeding, pacifiers, dangers of pillows/quilts/overheating).

  37. References 1. Klonoff-Cohen H, Edelstein SL. Bed sharing and the sudden infant death syndrome. Br Med J 1995;311:1269-72. 2. Hauck FR, Herman SM, Donovan M, al. et. Sleep environment and the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in an urban population: the Chicago Infant Mortality Study. Pediatrics 2003;111:1207-14. 3. Brooke H, Gibson A, Tappin D, Brown H. Case control study of sudden infant death syndrome in Scotland, 1992-1995. Br Med J 1997;314:1516-20. 4. Scragg RK, Mitchell EA, Taylor BJ, al. et. Bed sharing, smoking, and alcohol in the sudden infant death syndrome. Br Med J 1993;307:1312-8. 5. Mitchell EA, Tuohy PG, Brunt JM, et al. Risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome following the prevention campaign in New Zealand: a prospective study. Pediatrics 1997;100:835-40. 6. Fleming PJ, Blair PS, Bacon C, et al. Environment of infants during sleep and risk of the sudden infant death syndrome: results of 1993-5 case-control study for confidential inquiry into stillbirths and deaths in infancy. Br Med J 1996;313:191-5. 7. McGarvey C, McDonnell M, Hamilton K, O’Regan M, Matthews T. An eight-year study of risk factors for SIDS: Bedsharing vs. non bed-sharing. Arch Dis Child 2005 (doi:10.1136/adc.2005.074674):1-7. 8. Carpenter RG, Irgens LM, Blair PS, et al. Sudden unexplained infant death in 20 regions in Europe: case control study. Lancet 2004;363:185-91 9. Tappin D, Ecob R, Brooke H. Bedsharing, roomsharing, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in Scotland: a case-control study. J Pediatr 2005;147:32-7.

  38. Published in Pediatrics Lahr MB, Rosenberg KD, Lapidus JA. Bedsharing and maternal smoking in a population-based survey of new mothers. Pediatrics. 2005;116:e530