development during infancy n.
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  2. Infancy lasts from birth to the 2nd birthday • For the first 28 days after birth, the infant is referred to as a neonate • The neonate undergoes significant adaptations to help it survive outside the uterus

  3. ADAPTATIONS OF THE NEONATE • The neonate’s lungs take over the part of circulation and oxygenating the blood – 2 shunts close over and allow the blood to flow to the lungs instead of the placenta • The neonate takes its first breath (usually within 10secs after birth) – this makes the blood stream absorb the fluid in the lungs and allows them to fill with air

  4. Before birth, the neonate receives nutrients from the mother via the placenta – after birth the neonate has some fat supplies but must rely on regular feeding in order to grow and develop • Colostrum from breastmilk (secreted in the first few days after birth) supports nutrition and boosts immune function

  5. The excretory organs become functional and capable of eliminating waste products at birth – meconium is excreted rather than faeces for the first few days • Maintenance of body temp goes from being kept stable whilst in the uterus - to be needing to be regulated by other forms eg clothing, blankets, environment

  6. THE APGAR TEST • APGAR is an acronym for Activity, Pulse, Grimace, Appearance and Respiration • It is usually the first test given to newborns • It is administered twice – at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth

  7. A neonate receiving a score of 7 or above 1 min after birth is said to have successfully adapted to life outside the uterus • If a score is below 7 or after 5 mins has not reached 7 medical attention may be required

  8. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT • 2nd fastest period of physical development (behind prenatal only) • Birth weight doubles by 6mths and triples by 12mths • Bones continue to ossify • Senses develop further • Reflexes that are present at birth begin to change to more controlled movements (motor skills)

  9. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT • Family is the most significant influence on social development • Infant is totally dependent on caregivers – some social skills are learnt through observation • Infant can smile around 6 weeks and recognise facial expressions by 6mths • Basic games by 6mths • Many social skills are developed through play (sharing etc) and learning of acceptable behaviours ( no biting/hitting)

  10. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Emotional development centres around the family • Able to be comforted when hurt • Emotional attachment formed with caregivers/parents within 3-4 months – which assists in feelings of security, trust and safety • Infant may become distressed when primary caregiver leaves the room – separation anxiety • By 8mths the infant can show anger, happiness and frustration (temper tantrums)

  11. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT • From birth all senses are present and therefore the infant is capable of learning • Within months the infant will recognise its name and will respond when called • This progresses to names of favourite toys, people and objects

  12. Infants learn cause and effect quickly – crying results in attention • Object permanence becomes apparent • By 18mths infants can imitate and pretend – talk on phone • Language development is rapid – 3mths sounds (goo googa-ga), few words by age 1 (mum, dad) • By the end of infancy the child can say approx 150-300 words