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The Qur’an. Qur’an Hadith Islamic Jurisprudence. © Karen Devine 2008. Qur’an. The Qur’an is central to Islam. It is the revelation of God to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. The Qur’an should be the first and the last word a person hears. It is considered unalterable and literal.
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The Qur’an Qur’an Hadith Islamic Jurisprudence © Karen Devine 2008
Qur’an • The Qur’an is central to Islam. • It is the revelation of God to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. • The Qur’an should be the first and the last word a person hears. • It is considered unalterable and literal. • It has 114 chapters or suras, divided into 6000 verses.
Qur’an • The Qur’an is treated with the greatest respect: • Hands are washed before reading it • It is wrapped in a special cloth • No other books are shelved higher than it. • It is chanted in personal prayer.
Qur’an • Most Muslims know a chapter, some memorise the whole book. • The Qur’an is also the source of: • Islamic doctrines and ethics • Islamic law • The intellectual aspects of Islam. • Muhammad did not write the Qur’an but received it and scribes wrote it. • Professional memorisers were used for the scribing of the Qur’an.
Qur’an • The collection of sura were pieced together by the first and third caliphs. • The final Qur’an is arranged in order of decreasing length. • There are no variations of the Qur’an text. • It is written in Arabic and recitations should only occur in Arabic.
Qur’an The Qur’an contains: • Rules for living • Stories of the Prophets • Passages on the meaning of life • Details on fasting • The ritual of the Hajj • Criminal law • Social and economic policy.
Hadiths • A hadith is a narration on the life of the prophet. • This is distinguished from the sunna which is the details of the actual life of Muhammad. • Hadith include the sayings of the prophet. • The Hadith are secondary to the Qur’an in terms of their religious importance.
Hadiths • There are 2 kinds of Hadith: • Sacred Hadith: Words of God uttered by Muhammad yet not part of the Qur’an. • Noble Hadith: Details of the actions and words of the prophet. • There are 6 key collections of Hadith known as the “accurate six”. • The sayings of the Hadith make an authoritative guide to the sunna of Muhammad and the life that Muslims should seek to imitate.
Islamic Jurisprudence • Surrendering to the will of Allah is the key Islamic value. • There are 4 ethical sources for Islamic values: • The Qur’an- a recitation • Sunna- the life of Muhammad • Ijma- the consensus views of Muslim scholars • Qiya- analogies drawn from the Qur’an
Islamic Jurisprudence • Together these 4 values form the guiding principles of Islam. • A Muslim must “try one’s hardest” (Jihad) to establish good. • Jihad is the use of personal energy to sustain a Muslim way of life.
Islamic Jurisprudence • Shari’a law or “path to the waterhole” regulates Muslim life on issues including: • Morality • Hygiene • Etiquette • Inheritance • Commerce
Islamic Jurisprudence • All Muslim actions are either halal (allowed) or haram (forbidden). • There are 3 severe offences that can be committed by a Muslim: • Kufr: disbelief or ingratitude to Allah. • Shirk: Associating anything with Allah such as icons or ideas. • Tughyan: Not trusting in Allah and acting in a contrary way to nature.
Question Time • Research behaviours which are halal and haram.