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A Short History of Christian Apologetics

A Short History of Christian Apologetics

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A Short History of Christian Apologetics

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  1. A Short History of Christian Apologetics John Oakes, PhD ARS 8/27/2010

  2. New Testament Apologetics • Apologists in the Early Church • Medieval and Resaisance Apologetics • Modern Apologists and Apologetic Approaches

  3. New Testament Apologetics • John • John 20:30 Public miracles and signs • 1 John 1:1 That which our hands have touched we proclaim. (against Gnosticism) • Peter • Acts 2:14-38 • Prophecies • Wonders and signs • Resurrection • 1 Peter 3:15-16 The Urgency of Apologetics • Gently and respectfully • With a clear conscience • 2 Peter 1:16-20 Prophecy → More certain

  4. NT Apologetics (cont.) • Paul • Acts 17:22-34 • God is Creator (Stoicism) • God is near (Epicurianism) • God is Judge (Dualism) • Resurrection • Luke: Historical Evidence • Luke 2:1-3, 3:1-2, 3:23-38

  5. Apologists in the Early Church • Justin “Martyr” • Logos Theology • Fulfilled Prophecy • Irenaeus (ca. 125-200) • “Against Celsus” (Pagan philosopher) • “Against Heresies” (Gnosticism) • Fulfilled prophecy • Origen (ca. 185-254) • Plunder the Egyptians • Neoplatonism Origen’s School in Alexandria

  6. Early Church Apologists (cont.) • Jerome (347-420) • Against Porphyry (Daniel) • Daniel originally in Hebrew • Babylonia, Persia/Media, Greece, Rome • Augustine (354-430) • Against Manichees (Faustus) • Natural theology • Faith before reason. Jerome

  7. Scholasticism and Medieval Apologetics • Anselm (1033-1109) • Ontological Argument • Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) • Aristotlean Logic. Truth is Reasonable • “Summa Theologica” • Cosmological, Teleological Argument • “Classical” Apologetics • Martin Luther (1483-1546) • Faith before reason

  8. The Age of Reason—The Enlightenment • Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) • Experiential evidence • Pascal’s wager • Joseph Butler (1692-1752) • Against deists: faith is reasonable • William Paley (1743-1805) • Natural Theology (against deism)

  9. Oops….. • Young Earth Creationism • Henry Morris “The Genesis Flood”

  10. Modern Apologists • James Orr Worldview • Cornelius Van Til Presuppositional • CS Lewis Trilemma, Evidential • Norman Geisler Classical • Francis Schaeffer Experiential • Alvin Plantinga Fideism • Josh McDowell Historical, Legal proofs • William Lane Craig Classical