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Chapter 11 Employing Strategy Implementation Levers

Chapter 11 Employing Strategy Implementation Levers

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Chapter 11 Employing Strategy Implementation Levers

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  1. Chapter 11Employing StrategyImplementation Levers

  2. 2 Demonstrate how to use organizational structure as a strategy implementation levers 3 Understand the use of systems and processes as strategy implementation levers 4 Identify the roles of people and rewards as implementation levers 5 Explain the dual roles that strategic leadership plays in strategy implementation 6 Understand how global and dynamic contexts affect the use of implementation levers OBJECTIVES 1 Understand the interdependence between strategy formulation and implementation

  3. Strategy formulation Strategy implementation FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION The central, integrated, externallyoriented concept of how we willachieve our objectives • Arenas • Staging • Vehicles • Differentiators • Economiclogic Implementation Levers & StrategicLeadership

  4. 1 Is its strategy flawed? When a firm is experiencing difficulties, its good to ask three questions Is the implementation of itsstrategy flawed? 2 Are both strategy and imple-mentation flawed? 3 THREE QUESTIONS

  5. 3 KNOWING Vs. DOING GAP Percent of large companies who … … regarded themselves as goodor excellent at generating newknowledge 46% … reported having launched newproducts based on the applicationof new knowledge 14% (of the same firms) Source: J. Pfeiffer and R.I. Sutton, The Knowing – Doing Gap (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2000)

  6. CAUSES OF THE KNOWING – DOING GAP: INTERNAL & EXTERNAL RESISTANCE When Compaq tried to copy Dell’s direct-sales model, it met stiff resistance from Comp USA, Best Buy, and other retailers External • Internal • Businessunits • Culture SAP attempted to launch consulting service to supplement its core technology offering but failed to align with SAP culture

  7. 1996 New CEO Agenda 1992 1996 • Cultural focuson costs • Professionalism • HR policies • Account “farming”(not just growth) • Web-basedsoftware Profitability Revenue Customerservice Employees Reputation HOW WOULD YOU DO THAT? – SAP AMERICA

  8. CEO CHALLENGE – IMPLEMENT [T]he strategist will not be able to nail down every action step when the strategy is first crafted, nor should this even be attempted. However, he or she must have the ability to look ahead at the major implementation obstacles and ask, “Is this strategy workable? Can I make it happen?” Source: Hambrick and Cannella, “Strategy Implementation as Substance and Selling”

  9. KEY FACETS OF STRATEGIC IMPLEMENTATION • Organization structureSystems and processesPeople and rewards IntendedStrategy Realized & EmergentStrategies Implementation Levers Strategic Leadership • Lever and resourceallocation decisionsCommunicating thestrategy to stakeholders

  10. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ALIGNED TO STRATEGY

  11. Air Liquide decides to locatepersonnel at client sites Air Liquide pursues a wealth of new-business opportunities Customer-site employees receive more decision-making autonomy Higher-margin services improve firm performance Customer-site employees see new services Air Liquide could offer (e.g., hazardous material handling, inventory management Structure Strategy HOW STRUCTURE INFLUENCES STRATEGY – AIR LIQUIDE

  12. 1 Functional 2 Multidivisional 3 Matrix 4 Network 5 Partnerships 6 Franchises SIX FORMS OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

  13. FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE Corporate Office Organizes activities according to the specific functions that a company performs Marketing/Sales Finance Operations R&D Example Platypus Technologies has 30 employees organized into small departments: finance, marketing, HR, and R&D

  14. Headquarters MULTIDIVISIONAL STRUCTURE Business Group A Business Group B Business Group C One solution to problems of managing activities in multiple markets or managing multiple products Finance Finance Finance Marketing Marketing Marketing Operations Operations Operations Example GM is organized according to product division (GM Trucks, Chevrolet, Buick, Cadillac, Pontiac, Saturn, etc. Each maintains its own finance, marketing, and other support functions

  15. Headquarters MATRIX STRUCTURE Product or Region A Product or Region B Product or Region C Product or Region D R&D Hybrid between functional and multidivisional structure Operations Marketing Finance Source: http://www.cio.com/archive/090103/hs_reload.html

  16. Projectgroup Projectgroup Example NETWORK STRUCTURE Small, semi-autonomous, and potentially temporary groups brought together for a specific purpose Gore’s 6,000 employees spread across the world work in small teams and are encouraged to seek out colleagues on their own

  17. Partnerships Franchises The company is organized as a group of partners who own shares or units in the corporation Company not only transfers ownership of local facilities to franchisees, but license all local management responsibility Example Example Most law firms Burger King PARTNERSHIPS AND FRANCHISES

  18. Vision and Strategy BALANCED SCORECARD IS A MEASUREMENT SYSTEM TO MANAGE STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION Source: Kaplan & Norton, 1996

  19. STRATEGY MAPS HELP LINK ALL PERFORMANCE METRICS TO STRATEGY Implementation levers

  20. HOW WOULD I DO THAT? – BALANCED SCORECARD AT US NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE CENTER NUWC Vision: Be our nation’s provider of choice for undersea superiority – satisfying today’s needs and meeting tomorrow’s challenges NUWC Mission: We provide the technical foundation which enables the conceptualization, research, development, fielding, modernization, and maintenance of systems that ensure our navy’s undersea superiority. NUWC Vision: Be our nation’s provider of choice for undersea superiority – satisfying today’s needs and meeting tomorrow’s challenges NUWC Mission: We provide the technical foundation which enables the conceptualization, research, development, fielding, modernization, and maintenance of systems that ensure our navy’s undersea superiority. Financial: To succeed, how must we look to our constituents in terms of balanced budgets, revenue sources, and value? External: To achieve our vision and mission, how must we look to our customers on the dimensions of purpose, service, and quality? Internal: To satisfy our customers, at what business processes must we excel in order to decrease lag time, raise productivity, and lower costs? Employee learning and growth: To accomplish our vision and mission and support internal processes, what kind of staff and information systems do we need to foster innovation, continuous learning, and value in intellectual assets? Implementation levers

  21. PEOPLE AND REWARDS Successful CEOs “attended to people first [and] strategy second. They got the right people on the bus, moved the wrong people off, ushered the right people to right seats – and then they figured out where to drive it” JetBlue and Southwest Airlines both expend considerable effort making sure new hires will fit the firm People Jim Collins Rewards Implementation levers

  22. PEOPLE AND REWARDS People • Reward systems have two components • Performance evaluation and feedback • Compensation (e.g., salary, bonuses, stock, promotions, coveted office space) • They can serve as a force of control over outcomes or behaviors GE which owns several unrelated companies, links division manager pay to the performance of the unit they manage Rewards Implementation levers

  23. Making substantive implementation lever and resource allocation decisions • Communicating the strategy to key stakeholders STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP IS RESPONSIBLE FOR 2 KEY OBJECTIVES Strategic Leadership

  24. RESOURCE ALLOCATION DECISIONS Resource dimensions in the airline industry Major airlines Level of offering Southwest JetBlue Most airlines mimic each other while Southwest and JetBlue follow decidedly different strategies Factors ofcompetition Source: Adapted from W.C. Kim and R. Mauborgne, “Charting Your Company’s Future, “Harvard Business Review, June. 2002

  25. Upward Managersmust sufficiently communicate in 4 directions Across Outward Downward STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP – COMMUNICATING WITH KEY STAKEHOLDERS Convince top managementof a new strategy (e.g., Intel’s shift to microprocessors) Win cooperation of external stakeholders including customers and distributors (e.g., Compaq failed to do this with retailers) Win support of other units within the firm Enlist support of those who implement Strategic Leadership

  26. C C C ontacts ultural understanding redibility THREE C’S OF STRATEGY COMMUNICATION

  27. STRUCTURAL OPTIONS Transnational configuration Global configuration Multinationalconfiguration Internationalconfiguration Coordinated group of federations over which more administrative control is exerted by home country headquarters Resembles a decentralized federation much like the relation-ship between US federal government and 50 states Description Foreign offices are used to access customers, but demand is filled by centralized production Structure allows dispersion, specialization, and interdependence – networked control system Examples Japanese companies 1970s & 1980s SAP pre 1990 SAP post 1990 McDonald’s Global and Dynamic contexts

  28. Two common responses • Ambidextrous organization • Patching FIRM RESPONSES TO DYNAMIC CONTEXTS Challenges of dynamic, high velocity contexts Global and Dynamic contexts

  29. THE AMBIDEXTROUS ORGANIZATION Corporate Office Structural barriers preventing interference and interactions between existing and emerging businesses Existing Business Emerging Business Manufacturing Sales R&D Manufacturing Sales R&D New organization develops its own levers consistent with the needs of the radical innovation Existing organization with historic implementation levers Ambidextrous organizations establish units that are structurally independent from all other units. The emerging business units are to develop their own structures, processes, systems, cultures, strategies, etc. They are only integrated into the mother organization at the level of senior management Global and Dynamic contexts

  30. Example: HP Laser printingbusiness Patching: regularly remapping businesses in accordance with changing market conditions and restitching them into internal business ventures New technologies New business unit PATCHING Global and Dynamic contexts

  31. 1 Understand the interdependence between strategy formulation and implementation 2 Demonstrate how to use organizational structure as a strategy implementation levers 3 Understand the use of systems and processes as strategy implementation levers 4 Identify the roles of people and rewards as implementation levers 5 Explain the dual roles that strategic leadership plays in strategy implementation 6 Understand how global and dynamic contexts affect the use of implementation levers SUMMARY