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  1. POLYMERS A guide for GCSE students 2010 SPECIFICATIONS KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

  2. POLYMERS INTRODUCTION This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand selected GCSE Chemistry topics. It is based on the requirements of the AQA specification but is suitable for other examination boards. Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes and it can also prove useful for classroom teaching with an interactive white board. Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 Chemistry topics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY WEBSITE at... www.knockhardy.org.uk All diagrams, photographs and any animations in this Powerpoint are original and created by Jonathan Hopton. Permission must be obtained for their use in any work that is distributed for financial gain.

  3. POLYMERS • CONTENTS • What is polymerisation? • Types of polymerisation • Addition polymerisation of ethene • Other polymerisation examples • Sources of monomers • Disposal of polymers • Questions For more detailed information on fractional distillation, cracking and the properties of hydrocarbons such as alkanes and alkenes, see the appropriate Powerpoint on the Knockhardy GCSE site. www.knockhardy.org.uk/gcse.htm

  4. WHAT IS POLYMERISATION?

  5. POLYMERISATION A process in which small molecules called monomers join together into large molecules consisting of repeating units.

  6. POLYMERISATION A process in which small molecules called monomers join together into large molecules consisting of repeating units. There are two basic types

  7. POLYMERISATION A process in which small molecules called monomers join together into large molecules consisting of repeating units. There are two basic types ADDITION all the atoms in the monomer are used to form the polymer examples poly(ethene), polystyrene, pvc, ptfe

  8. POLYMERISATION A process in which small molecules called monomers join together into large molecules consisting of repeating units. There are two basic types ADDITION all the atoms in the monomer are used to form the polymer examples poly(ethene), polystyrene, pvc, ptfe CONDENSATIONmonomers join up the with expulsion of small molecules not all the original atoms are present in the polymer examples nylon, polyesters, pva

  9. POLYMERISATION A process in which small molecules called monomers join together into large molecules consisting of repeating units. There are two basic types ADDITION all the atoms in the monomer are used to form the polymer examples poly(ethene), polystyrene, pvc, ptfe CONDENSATIONmonomers join up the with expulsion of small molecules not all the original atoms are present in the polymer examples nylon, polyesters, pva ALKENES UNDERGO ADDITION POLYMERISATION

  10. POLYMERISATION • during polymerisation, alkenes undergo an addition reaction • all the atoms in the original alkenes are used to form the polymer • long hydrocarbon chains are formed

  11. POLYMERISATION • during polymerisation, alkenes undergo an addition reaction • all the atoms in the original alkenes are used to form the polymer • long hydrocarbon chains are formed

  12. POLYMERISATION • during polymerisation, alkenes undergo an addition reaction • all the atoms in the original alkenes are used to form the polymer • long hydrocarbon chains are formed • the diagram shows… the original monomer and the repeating unit in the polymer ethene poly(ethene) MONOMER POLYMER

  13. POLYMERISATION • during polymerisation, alkenes undergo an addition reaction • all the atoms in the original alkenes are used to form the polymer • long hydrocarbon chains are formed • the diagram shows… the original monomer and the repeating unit in the polymer the number of repeating units is the same as the number of original molecules n represents a large number ethene poly(ethene) MONOMER POLYMER

  14. POLYMERISATION The animation shows the monomers turning into the polymer

  15. OTHER POLYMERISATION REACTIONS ETHENE POLY(ETHENE) PROPENE POLY(PROPENE) CHLOROETHENE POLY(CHLOROETHENE) POLYVINYLCHLORIDE PVC TETRAFLUOROETHENE POLY(TETRAFLUOROETHENE) PTFE “Teflon”

  16. SOURCES OF MONOMERS

  17. SOURCES OF MONOMERS FROM CRUDE OIL

  18. SOURCES OF MONOMERS FROM CRUDE OIL CRUDE OIL IS FRACTIONALLY DISTILLED HEAVIER HYDROCARBON FRACTIONS ARE LESS USEFUL

  19. SOURCES OF MONOMERS FROM CRUDE OIL CRUDE OIL IS FRACTIONALLY DISTILLED HEAVIER HYDROCARBON FRACTIONS ARE LESS USEFUL THEIR MOLECULES ARE BROKEN DOWN INTO SMALLER ONES THIS PROCESS IS KNOWN AS CRACKING

  20. SOURCES OF MONOMERS FROM CRUDE OIL CRUDE OIL IS FRACTIONALLY DISTILLED HEAVIER HYDROCARBON FRACTIONS ARE LESS USEFUL THEIR MOLECULES ARE BROKEN DOWN INTO SMALLER ONES THIS PROCESS IS KNOWN AS CRACKING ETHENE (an alkene)

  21. SOURCES OF MONOMERS FROM CRUDE OIL CRUDE OIL IS FRACTIONALLY DISTILLED HEAVIER HYDROCARBON FRACTIONS ARE LESS USEFUL THEIR MOLECULES ARE BROKEN DOWN INTO SMALLER ONES THIS PROCESS IS KNOWN AS CRACKING ALKENES ARE AN IMPORTANT PRODUCT OF CRACKING ETHENE (C2H4) IS THE MOST IMPORTANT ALKENE ETHENE (an alkene)

  22. PROBLEMS WITH POLYMERS

  23. PROBLEMS WITH POLYMERS Although polymers derived from alkenes are invaluable to modern society, their disposal creates widespread problems.

  24. PROBLEMS WITH POLYMERS Although polymers derived from alkenes are invaluable to modern society, their disposal creates widespread problems. • they are unreactive to most chemicals • they are unreactivetobacteria (non-biodegradable) • if they are just discarded they add to the landfill problem

  25. PROBLEMS WITH POLYMERS Although polymers derived from alkenes are invaluable to modern society, their disposal creates widespread problems. • they are unreactive to most chemicals • they are unreactivetobacteria (non-biodegradable) • if they are just discarded they add to the landfill problem OPTIONS

  26. PROBLEMS WITH POLYMERS Although polymers derived from alkenes are invaluable to modern society, their disposal creates widespread problems. • they are unreactive to most chemicals • they are unreactivetobacteria (non-biodegradable) • if they are just discarded they add to the landfill problem OPTIONS recycling high cost of collection and re-processing incinerate saves on landfill sites and produces energy but… produces toxic fumes Plastic bags are being made from polymers and cornstarch so that they break down more easily

  27. POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES QUESTIONS

  28. POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES CAN YOU SPOT THE ORIGINAL ALKENE MONOMER?

  29. POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES CAN YOU SPOT THE ORIGINAL ALKENE MONOMER?

  30. For more detailed information on FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION AND CRACKING, please see the appropriate Powerpoint on the Knockhardy GCSE site. www.knockhardy.org.uk/gcse.htm

  31. POLYMERS THE END ©2011 JONATHAN HOPTON & KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING