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Intrusion Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

Intrusion Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

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Intrusion Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

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  1. Intrusion Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks Group Meeting Spring 2005 Presented by Edith Ngai

  2. Outline • Wireless sensor networks (WSN) • Security in WSN • Background on intrusion detection • Intrusion detection in WSN • Types of attacks • Intrusion detection components • Required technologies • Future directions • Conclusion

  3. Technology trend • Small integrated devices • Smaller, cheaper, more powerful • PDAs, mobile phones • Many opportunities, and research areas • Power management • Distributed algorithms

  4. Wireless sensor networks • Wireless sensor node • power supply • sensors • embedded processor • wireless link • Many, cheap sensors • wireless  easy to install • intelligent  collaboration • low-power  long lifetime

  5. Possible applications • Military • battlefield surveillance, biological attack detection, targeting • Ecological • fire detection, flood detection, agricultural uses • Health related • human physiological data monitoring • Miscellaneous • car theft detection, inventory control, home applications

  6. Required technologies • Efficient data routing • ad-hoc network • one or more ‘datasinks’ • In-network data processing • large amounts of raw data • limited power and bandwidth • Node localization

  7. Security in WSN • Main security threats in WSN are: • Radio links are insecure – eavesdropping / injecting faulty information is possible • Sensor nodes are not temper resistant – if it is compromised the attacker obtains all security information • Protecting confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the communications and computations

  8. Why security is different? • Sensor Node Constraint • Battery • CPU power • Memory • Networking Constraints and Features • Wireless • Ad hoc • Unattended

  9. Network defense React - Response - Terminate Connections - Block IP Addresses - Containment - Recovery - Reconstitute Protect - Encryption - Firewalls - Authentication - Biometrics Detect - Intrusions - Attacks - Misuse of Resources - Data Correlation - Data Visualization - Malicious Behaviors - Network Status/ Topology

  10. What is intrusion detection? • Intrusion detection is the process of discovering, analyzing, and reportingunauthorized or damaging network or computer activities • Intrusion detection discovers violations of confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information and resources

  11. What is intrusion detection? • Intrusion detection demands: • As much information as the computing resources can possibly collect and store • Experienced personnel who can interpret network traffic and computer processes • Constant improvement of technologies and processes to match pace of Internet innovation

  12. How useful is intrusion detection? • Provide digital forensic data to support post-compromise law enforcement actions • Identify host and network misconfigurations • Improve management and customer understanding of the Internet's inherent hostility • Learn how hosts and networks operate at the operating system and protocol levels

  13. Intrusion detection models • All computer activity and network traffic falls in one of three categories: • Normal • Abnormal but not malicious • Malicious • Properly classifying these events are the single most difficult problem -- even more difficult than evidence collection

  14. Intrusion detection models • Two primary intrusion detection models • Network-based intrusion detection monitors network traffic for signs of misuse • Host-based intrusion detection monitors computer processes for signs of misuse • So-called "hybrid" systems may do both • A hybrid IDS on a host may examine network traffic to or from the host, as well as processes on that host

  15. IDS paradigms • Anomaly Detection - the AI approach • Misuse Detection - simple and easy • Burglar Alarms - policy based detection • Honey Pots - lure the hackers in • Hybrids - a bit of this and that

  16. Anomaly detection • Goals: • Analyze the network or system and infer what is normal • Apply statistical or heuristic measures to subsequent events and determine if they match the model/statistic of “normal” • If events are outside of a probability window of “normal” then generate an alert

  17. Misuse detection • Goals: • Know what constitutes an attack • Detect it • A database of known attack signatures should be maintained

  18. Intrusion Detection in WSN

  19. Network model • BSj: base station at location (Xj, Yj) • Si: sensor node at location (xi, yi) • R: transmission range of the base station • r: transmission range of the sensor node • k-coverage: a node covers by k BSs

  20. Definitions • Coverage of a base station • Number of coverage from base stations • p sends data to q successfully (in 1-hop) • p sends data to q successfully via k hops • p fails in sending data from p to q

  21. Types of intrusions • Sinkhole SH(q), HelloFlood HF(q) • A region of nodes will forward packets destined for a BS through an adversary • Wormhole WH(q) • An adversary tunnels messages received in one part of the network over a low latency link and replays them in a different part

  22. Types of intrusions • Missing Data MD(p) • Missing data from p to BSi • Wrong Data WD(p) • Inconsistent data • Interference • Sensor p cannot send packet to its neighboring nodes

  23. Architecture

  24. Intrusion detection components • Neighbor monitoring • Watchdog • Data fusion • Local – neighboring nodes • Global – overlapping areas • Topology discovery • Route tracing • History

  25. Intrusion classification Attack Types: I - Sinkhole, Hello Flood II – Wormhole III – Missing Data IV – Wrong Data V - Interference

  26. Required technologies • Collection of the audit data • Localization • Data fusion • Routing • Analysis on the audited data • Identify the intrusion characteristics • Detect the intrusions • Locate the intrusions • Intrusion reaction

  27. Future direction • Study how to collect the audit data effectively • Complete the intrusion detection architecture • Investigate the methods to analyze the audit data for intrusion detection • Explore how to locate and react to the intrusions • Formulate and evaluate our intrusion detection solution

  28. Conclusion • We discussed the characteristics of WSN and its security issues • We studied traditional intrusion detection technologies • We introduced the problem of intrusion detection in WSN • We proposed an intrusion detection architecture and analyzed various kinds of intrusions in WSN • We showed our future direction