Life in the Industrial Age 1800-1914 Ms. Ramos
The Industrial Revolution Spreads Ms. Ramos
Factors that led others to industrialize • Natural resources • Use ideas & tech of U.K. Ms. Ramos
Ms. Ramos Source: Prentice Hall
Effects of industrialization • Rapid urbanization • Long hours & dangerous conditions • Many new goods at lower prices • Politics • Global trade competition Ms. Ramos
Technology • Steele production- Henry Bessemer • Dynamite- Alfred Nobel • Dynamo- Michael Faraday • Elec. Light bulb- Thomas Edison Ms. Ramos
New Production • Interchangeable parts • Assembly line Ms. Ramos
Transport & Communication • Automobile • Airplane • Telegraph • Telephone • Radio Ms. Ramos
Business • Corporations • Monopolies & trusts • Cartel • “Captains of industry” v. “Robber barons” Ms. Ramos
http://www.uoregon.edu/~eberkshi/webquest/webquest/introduction_files/image002.jpghttp://www.uoregon.edu/~eberkshi/webquest/webquest/introduction_files/image002.jpg Ms. Ramos
The Rise of the Cities Ms. Ramos
Medicine adds to pop. • Germ theory- Louis Pasteur • Tuberculosis- Robert Koch • Anesthisia • Sanitation & nursing-Florence Nightingale • Antiseptic- Joseph Lister Ms. Ramos
City Life Changes • Urban renewal • Paved lit streets • Sewers • Skyscrapers • Entertainment • Slums persisted • High crime rates Ms. Ramos
Working Class Advances • Mutual-aid societies • Men gain suffrage • Union action • Gov pass working regulations • Higher standard of living Ms. Ramos
Life in Industrial Age Expanded Discussion Points From Class
Electric Power Early Attempts Edison’s Light bulb • Scientists interested in electricity for centuries • Ben Franklin, 1700s • Michael Faraday discovered magnetism, electricity connection 1831 • Dynamo powered electric motor • Swan developed primitive lightbulb, 1860 • First usable, practical lightbulb invented 1879 • Edison’s lightbulb came through trial and error and many hours of work in lab • Other inventions: • Generators • Motors • Light sockets • Electric power plant As the Industrial Age progressed in the late 1800s, one technology changed industry and daily life more than any other-electricity.
Effects on Industry and Daily Life Electric power transformed industry in Europe and the United States • Improved industry in 3 significant ways • Factories no longer had to rely on steam engines • Factories did not have to depend on waterways to power steam engines • Factories became less dependent on sunlight, increased production • Improved daily life • Cheaper, more convenient light source than gas, oil • Other electrical devices soon created
Analyze How did electricity change industry and daily life?
Analyze How did electricity change industry and daily life? Answer(s): Factories no longer needed steam engines or water sources to power them; production increased; people could light their homes and businesses more safely and effectively with electric lighting.
Improvements in Steel Steam Powered Trains • Bessemer process, forcing air through molten metal to burn out impurities, strengthen steel • Factories increased production of locomotives, tracks • Stronger steel used to build bridges • 30,000 mile network of railroads linking major American cities, 1860 • New railroads helped grow cities in American West • Boats on canals, rivers best for long-distance travel, in early 1800s • With development of efficient steam engines, trains replace boats • Trains could carry heavy loads, traveled faster than watercraft • World’s first rail line, Britain 1830 • 3,000 miles of railroads, Eastern U.S. 1840 Advances in Transportation
Advances in Transportation • Rail technology around the world • India’s first train, 1851 • First African railroad, Egypt 1852 • Trans-Siberian Railroad in Russia, world’s longest, 1891 • Travel and trade • Expansion of railroads increased markets • Trains moved huge loads efficiently, transportation costs declined • New products became available • Food products • Perishable foods could get to market before spoiling • Frozen beef shipped by rail from west to east • Shoppers had more food choices
The Automobile The Airplane • First attempts, Europe 1769 • 1885-1886 Daimler and Benz developed practical automobiles • Early U.S. autos too expensive • Henry Ford built first affordable cars, mass production, 1908 • More roads than rail lines, 1915 • Wilbur and Orville Wright flew first sustained powered flight, 1903 • Developed airplane over four years • Glider-powered with internal combustion engine • Paved the way for commercial, military airplanes Advances in Transportation • Steamships • Steamships changed ocean travel • Not dependent on wind, could travel through any weather • U.S. steamship service began, west around South America to east, 1849 • Long distance movement of goods economically viable by 1870 • Passenger travel began shortly thereafter
Identifying Cause and Effect What effect did advances in transportation have on daily life?
Identifying Cause and Effect What effect did advances in transportation have on daily life? Answer(s): better and faster means of transportation; made it possible to get more goods to market at lower costs, increasing consumers' choices
Advances in Communication • Early 1800s Communication • Much slower than today • Boat, messenger on foot, horseback or carriage • Entrepreneurs, inventors searched for faster ways • The Telegraph • Telegraph invented, 1837 • Samuel Morse also invented a “language” for those messages • Messages transmitted as electrical pulses • “What hath God wrought?” • First telegraph message from Morse, 1844 • Telegraph wires between Washington D.C., Baltimore • New era in communication • Growth of Telegraph • Much of country linked by 1861 • Telegraph cable to Europe, 1866; to India, 1870 • Globalized personal and business communication
Advances in Communication • The Telephone • AlexanderGraham Bell tried to create way to send multiple telegraph messages at same time • Invented telephone 1876 • “Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you.” • Bell sent message to assistant from one room to another • Watson heard message through receiver • Demand for telephones • Increased during 1880s • Thousands of miles of phone lines laid across U.S. • Almost 1.5 million phones installed by 1900
Advances in Communication The Radio and Phonograph • Telephone technology limited by length of wires • New wireless technology • Guglielmo Marconi built wireless telegraph, 1895 • Radio first used as communication device for ships • Later used for entertainment and news • Sound recording technology • Thomas Edison invented phonograph • Music became available to everyone
Contrast How did the telegraph differ from the telephone?
Contrast How did the telegraph differ from the telephone? Answer(s): telegraph transmitted coded messages; telephone transmitted voice