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Unit 3 Order

Unit 3 Order

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Unit 3 Order

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  1. Unit 3Order Purpose: • What: Order • By: the creation of the Constitution • So : we know how order affects our lives.

  2. Order What is it? The established system of social organization. A condition in which freedom from disorder is maintained through established authority.

  3. Order Why do we need order? What does order look like? Why do we improve order?

  4. Order Learning Targets I can explain: • Articles of Confederation • Northwest Ordinance of 1787 • Shays’s Rebellion • James Madison • Constitutional Convention • Federalism • Virginia Plan • New Jersey Plan • Great Compromise • The Federalists

  5. Ch 8Creating the Constitution Compromise – A settlement of a dispute by each party giving up some demands in order to reach a goal. Essential Question- What compromises emerged from the Constitutional Convention?

  6. Vocabulary Terms • Articles Of Confederation • Northwest Territory • Northwest Ordinance of 1787 • Constitution Convention • Enlightenment • Republic • constitution • federalism • Great Compromise • Three-Fifths Compromise • Electoral College • Ratify • Federalist Papers

  7. Study Skills • Study 5-10 minutes a night • Know Vocabulary • Understand Organization • Create Flashcards • Drill and Practice facts • Know the test giver • Know your strengths and weaknesses • Read aloud/Reread/Write down • Write test questions • Teach someone else • Complete chapter review • Create a chart or graph

  8. Articles Of Confederation Purpose What- We are going to learn about Order. How- bylearning about the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Why- so we understand how Oder affects my life.

  9. Members of the Second Continental Congress knew that the former colonies needed to create a central government.

  10. Articles Of Confederation • Articles of Confederation • After the Declaration of Independence, Congress tried to unite the states under one national government. • Members of Congress were afraid a strong central government would trample their rights. • Created Articles of Confederation, a firm league of friendship. • States keep their powers. • Congress runs national government, each state got 1 vote. • Confederate Congress, which had limited powers. • Power to :Declare war, raise an army/navy, print (coin) money, set up postal system. • No power to impose taxes. They had to ask and states often ignore the request.

  11. Western Lands

  12. Important Questions What worried James Madison about the future of the United States? Why did many members of Congress fear a strong central government? What were some of the government’s powers under the Articles of Confederation? What were some of the government’s limitations?

  13. Important Questions What worried James Madison about the future of the United States? • He worried that the states would not work together. Why did many members of Congress fear a strong central government? • They feared such a government would trample their rights. What were some of the government’s powers under the Articles of Confederation? • Coin and borrow money, declare war, raise army/navy, negotiate treaties, could settle disputes between states, ask states for money and soldiers, set up postal system. What were some of the government’s limitations? • Could not impose taxes, had no president or national court system, had no power to settle disputes, collect money or supply troops.

  14. Early Quarrels and Accomplishments • The Articles of Confederation key weakness was that Congress had no power to settle quarrels among states which were mostly about taxes and boundaries. • Developing Western Lands • Confederation Congress planned to sell western lands to raise money. • Land ordinance of 1785 set up system for surveying and dividing public lands know as Northwest Territory- included what is now Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin • Northwest Ordinance • Northwest Ordinance of 1787- a law that divided the Northwest territory into smaller territories which h was governed by a territorial governor. • Created a system for adding new states; banned slavery in the Northwest Territory.

  15. Land Ordinance of 1785 • Congress surveyed the land into squares 6 miles on each side. (townships)

  16. Land Ordinance of 1785 • Each town was divided into 36 smaller sections, 640 acres each. (the cost was a minimum of $1 per acre)

  17. Land Ordinance of 1785 • People pooled their money in order to be able to afford a piece of land.

  18. Northwest Ordinance (1787) • When 5,000 free males of voting age settled an area, it became self-governing. • When the population reached 60,000 free citizens, the area could apply for statehood. Ex.) OH, IN, IL, MI, WI • Slavery was outlawed.

  19. Important Questions What Compromise was made to create and establish the Articles of Confederation. All western land claims were given to the Confederate Congress. Congress would survey and sell land to be sold to pay off war debt.

  20. Shays Rebellion and the Need for Change Purpose What- We are going to learn about Order How-bystudying the causes of Shays’s Rebellion Why- so we understand how Order affects my life.

  21. Daniel Shays

  22. Shays’s Rebellion • Shays’s Rebellion and the Need for Change • Under the Articles of Confederation, the new nation had serious money problems. • Congress had power to coin money but states printed money too. • Money became worthless. • Massachusetts Farmers Rebel • Farmers could not pay taxes or debts • Courts orders farmer to be sold to pay taxes and debts • Daniel Shays, a war hero, rebels • Shays’s Rebellion is ended by Massachusetts militia • A Call for a Convention • Shays’s Rebellion forces Congress to call a convention to revise the Article of Confederation. • Delegates meet in Philadelphia in May 1787 • James Madison is prepared to create a strong central government

  23. Problems with the National Government. • Confederate Congress could not regulate interstate commerce – trade between two or more states – so trade laws differed from state to state. • Congress could not force states to provide an army, which made it difficult to protect citizens or enforce international treaties. • Britain had not yet abandon forts on the U.S. side of the Great Lakes, as required by the Treaty of Paris 1783. • Spain closed lower Mississippi River to U.S. shipping, which hurt western farmers. • Inflation • Some States printed large amounts of paper money, creating inflation- increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money. • Inflation helps debtors- people who owe money – because they can pay back their debts with money that is worth less than what they borrowed. • Creditors- people who lend money- were upset at receiving worthless money • Rising inflation and lost trade led to a depression- a period of low economic activity combined with a rise in unemployment. • Revolt • Some Massachusetts farmers angry over land taxes carried out a revolt that became known as Shays’s Rebellion. • Led by Daniel Shays, a poor farmer and Revolutionary War veteran. • Outcome • National government did not have the power to offer much help during the revolt. • Revealed weakness of the U.S. central government and the Articles of Confederation.

  24. Important Questions How did the lack of an army affect relations with foreign countries? • United States had no military to motivate or force other nations to respect its rights.

  25. Important Questions What conclusion did Americans reach after Shays’s Rebellion? • U.S. government under the Articles of Confederation was to weak to respond to crises.

  26. Constitution Convention What- We are going to learn about Order How-byunderstanding why delegates met to revise the Articles Of Confederation Why- so we understand how Order affects my life.

  27. Constitution Convention • Opening the Constitutional Convention • Constitutional Convention held at Philadelphia’s State House in May 1787. • Called to discuss ways to improve the Articles of Confederation • George Washington was elected president of the convention • The Delegates • Every state but Rhode Island sent delegates, for a total of 55 • Did not include John Adams or Thomas Jefferson who were representing the U.S. in Britain and France. • Also not in attendance were Sam Adams, John Hancock, and Patrick Henry.

  28. The Father of the Constitution • The most prepared delegate was James Madison, who took good notes and joined in many discussions. • The Rule of Secrecy • Delegates needed to be able to speak their minds without fear. • All windows, and doors were closed and guarded • Shared Beliefs and Clashing Views • Committed to Life, Liberty and Pursuit of Happiness. • Believed in a republic, constitution, suffrage, and more powerful government.

  29. Important Questions Why was the Constitutional Convention held? • To discuss ways to improve the Articles of Confederation.

  30. Homework Quiz • How many states and delegates were represented at the Constitutional Convention? • What was the purpose of the Constitutional Convention? • Where was the Constitutional Convention held? (city, state, building) • Who was the most influential delegate? • Name two famous men who were at the Constitutional Convention and two men that were not.

  31. Issue: How Should States Be Represented in the New Government What- We are going to learn about Order How-byunderstanding the issues with how states should be represented in government Why- so we understand how Order affects my life.

  32. Virginia Plan • How Should States Be Represented in the New Government? • Virginia proposes to create new document. • Several issues divided delegates, particularly along state and regional lines. • The Virginia Plan • The Virginia Plan, or large state plan, was written mainly by James Madison. • Called for new constitution that gave supreme power to central government. • Created Federalism- Dividing power between the states and central government. • Created three branches, Executive, Legislative, Judicial. • Legislative Branch(Congress)would be bicameral (2 Houses) representation was based on state population. • Opposed by small states, because larger states could over power them.

  33. New Jersey Plan • New Jersey Plan • The New Jersey Plan, or Small state plan, was offered by William Paterson. • Called for new constitution that gave supreme power to state governments. • Created Federalism- Dividing power between the states and central government. • Created three branches, Executive, Legislative, Judicial. • Legislative Branch(Congress) would be unicameral (1 House) each state receiving equal representation. • Opposed by larger states, because smaller states would have more influence

  34. 8.6 Resolution: The Great Compromise What- We are going to learn about Order How-byunderstanding the Great Compromise Why- so we understand how Order affects my life.

  35. The Great Compromise • Resolution: The Great Compromise • Large and small states could not agree on either plan. • Tempers Rise • The smaller states did not trust the larger states. • They threatened to ally with a foreign nation • A Compromised Is Reached • The Great Compromise was offered by Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman • Created new constitution that gave supreme power to central government. • Created Federalism- Dividing power between the states and central government. • Created three branches, Executive, Legislative, Judicial. • Created a bicameral (2 houses) legislature, in which each state received equal representation in the upper house (Senate) and population-based representation in the lower house (House of Representatives).

  36. Homework Quiz • What plan called for the legislative branch to be based on population? • What was the compromise called that settled the dispute between large states and small states? • Who presented the New Jersey Plan? • How many houses did the Virginia Plan purpose? • How many houses in the legislative branch did the compromise include and how would representation be determined? • name of house- how many representatives

  37. 8.7 Issue: How Should Slaves Be Counted What- We are going to learn about Order How-byunderstanding the issues with how slaves should be counted Why- so we understand how Order affects my life.

  38. Three-Fifths Compromise • Issue: How Should Slaves Be Counted • Now that representation was settled how do we count slaves? • People or Property? • Southern delegates wanted slaves to be counted like everyone else for purposes of representation. • Northern delegates thought slaves were property and should not be counted to determine representation but should be counted to determine taxes. • Northern also stated that if they are to be counted as people “then make them citizens and let them vote.” • Under so-called Three-Fifths Compromise, each slave would be counted as three fifths of a person for purposes of representation. • New Thinking on Slavery • Many Northern states began thinking slavery was wrong because of the principles of the Declaration of Independence and many states passed laws ending slavery. • Although many southern were uneasy about slavery they would not abolish it because their economy depended on it.

  39. 8.8 Resolution: The Three-Fifths Compromise What- We are going to learn about Order How-byunderstanding the Three-Fifths Compromise Why- so we understand how Order affects my life.

  40. 8.8 • Resolution: The Three-Fifths Compromise • After much debate Madison proposed a compromise. • Under so-called Three-Fifths Compromise, each slave would be counted as three fifths of a person for purposes of representation in the House of Representation. • Another Slavery Issue • Northern wanted congress to control trade between states and other countries. • Southern worried that congress would taxes southern exports like rice, tobacco and use that power to outlaw the slave trade. • Southern and northern delegates disagreed over ending the foreign slave trade. • More Compromises on Slavery. • Under another compromise, • Congress could control trade but could not tax exports. • northern delegates would wait 20 years before attempting to end foreign slave trade; southern delegates would not ask that laws in Congress require a two-thirds majority vote to pass. • They agreed to fugitive slave clause

  41. Important Questions How did the delegates resolve disagreements over slavery and representation? Each slave would count as three fifths of a person for purposes of representation. Congress would make no laws about Slave Trade for 20 years.

  42. Homework Quiz • How did delegates from Pennsylvania want to count slaves? • How did delegates from Virginia want to count slaves? • What did the two sides agree to do about the slave trade? • What is the Three-Fifths Compromise about? (Slavery?) • If the Great Compromise was between large and small states, who was the Three Fifths Compromise between?

  43. 8.9 Issue: How Should the Chief Executive Be Elected What- We are going to learn about Order How-byunderstanding how the Chief Executive should be elected Why- so we understand how Order affects my life.

  44. Electoral College • Issue: How Should the Chief Executive Be Elected • James Wilson wanted a single person like a King. • Others were not happy with that idea • One Executive or Three? • Some delegates want one executive to make “clear, timely and responsible” decision • Others, like Edmund Randolph, wanted three to keep one from abusing power. • Choosing the Chief Executive • Some delegates wanted Congress to appoint the President • Some wanted the people to appoint the President • Others wanted a chosen special group called electors to do it.