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Media Timeline : Music Videos

Media Timeline : Music Videos. Eleanor Mayo AS to A2 Transition Work. History of Music.

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Media Timeline : Music Videos

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  1. Media Timeline:Music Videos Eleanor Mayo AS to A2 Transition Work

  2. History of Music • The word ‘Music’ from the Greek word “mousike”, which means “Art of the Muses”. The overall definition of music in terms of the creation, performance and significance can vary according to different cultures. Music can be divided into genres and sub genres accordingly, although the division of music genres is often left to individual interpretation. • In many cultures music is seen as an important way of life, as Ancient Greek Philosophers defined music as “tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies”. As music was an important part of social and cultural life in Greece, musicians and singers played an important part in Greek Theater. • It can be argued that music began around 500 B.C, when Pythagoras experimented with acoustics, and looked at how math related to the tones formed when plucking strings. During this time period, music was mainly used in churches in particular a chant was created for Pop Gregory I. However toward the end of the Middle Ages, music began to move away from the church setting. Around the 12th and 13th centuries music was confined for the nobles, with court minstrels performing for nobility. There were also wandering minstrels who would perform music and acrobatics in castles, taverns and town squares. • During the Renaissance period, vocal music was considered to be more important than instrumental music. Composers began to write music to give deeper meaning to their songs, as an interest in language had created a close relationship between music and words. Therefore the music during this period was seen as emotional, although today it is seen as calming. The difference between Medieval and Renaissance music is that, renaissance music has a more full sound, as the range of music had expanded to four octaves. • During the twentieth century, many techniques that had been considered uncommon were being used in music. This meant that many composers were using percussive instruments, which soon became a major part of twentieth century music. Another important element to music during the twentieth century, was the change from the traditional tonal system. This also meant that different rhythmic patterns were created.

  3. History of Pop Music • The United States became a powerful force for twentieth century music. This was when Jazz, Country and other music genres became popular and took over the world of music. This soon became known as the ‘Jazz Age”. • Although Pop music was not well known until the twentieth century, it can still be linked to previous centuries. “Pop” is short for popular, and this term has remained the same, in the every changing music industry that is present in today’s society. • The first pop stars, were known as the crooners of the 1930’s and 1940’s. Artists such as Bing Crosby, sold millions of records, as well as Frank Sinatra and Al Bowly. During this period, artists recorded and preformed with full orchestras, which can be linked to the main style of music during the time period. However vocal groups such as the Mills Brothers, also set an standard for those who aspired to have fame. • Historically, The Beatles set the high standard for pop music and they were the first music act to create an music video or mock-documentary for A Hard Day’s Night. From 1962 until their break up in 1970, they were the biggest band in the world and dominated the charts in Britain and America. The biggest pop star that emerged after the Beatles in 1970 was Elton John, who has remained a consistent influence in pop music.

  4. History of Pop Music Videos • In 1895, the oldest film with music was made with the Kinetophone, which had been developed by Thomas Edison. This device showed moving pictures and also included an phonograph. William Dickson was the inventor for the film, which shows him playing the violin as two men dance behind him. The music for the film was recorded on a wax cylinder, which went missing only to be found at the Edison Natural Historical Sit in the early 1960’s. This meant that the music and film were put together for the first time in 1988. The film is known as ‘The Dickinson Experimental Sound Film”, however it was never released as the use of the Kinetophone never became popular with the public at the time. • During the mid twenties, 1925, Max and David Fleischer, released a carton which featured a bouncing ball which hopped over lyrics. This encouraged in theater sing alongs. This soon became instrumental in children’s television shows, as cartoons with bouncing balls became key elements. • During the 1940’s, soundies emerged, these were three minute films which featured music and dance performances. These films were designed to be displayed on jukebox like projection machines, in bars and restaurants. There were many talents, such as jazz singers, swing dancers, comedians and chamber musicians who appeared in them. • Historians argue that singer and songwriter, Jiles Perry Richardson, also known as The Big Bopper, became the first person to use the phrase “music video”. This was in an 1959 British magazine interview, and Jiles Perry was also the earliest artist known to make rock music videos. • Teen oriented music programs emerged in Australia in 1974, which featured music videos. Shows such as ‘Countdown’ and ‘Sounds’, earned a large audience which lead to other countries using the format.

  5. Codes and Conventions of Music Videos Through the analysis of several existing music videos, its is clear that throughout music videos similarities become apparent. For example, in music videos which feature an female artist, a modern representation of women is presented as they are seen as independent. Another convention of music videos is that the lighting that is used is bright, and colorful which gives an overall vibrant feel to the music. An example where this is used is the music video Domino by Jessie J. In the music video by Katy Perry, there is a storyline present, which gives the video a deeper meaning and is portrayed in different ways. In the Katy Perry video, the song involves a narrative. This suggests that the narrative of the music video is the most important part. The use of camera techniques that are used in a music video are important, as different shots are used frequently in various music videos. For example a shot types that can featured in music videos are close ups, and crane shots, which are used in Katy Perry’s video. The mise en scene, is another important feature of music videos as various music videos include props. The type of props that are used in a music video often depend on the genre of music, and the overall tone of the song that is being filmed. In addition, costume, location and colour are aspects that are taken into account when filming a music video, this adds to the sense of verisimilitude for some videos. This can be seen in Katy Perry’s music video “FIREWORK”

  6. Technologies that have been used for Music Videos • Before the term “ music video”, was coined music videos were known as an “illustrated song”. These illustrated videos were images, that were projected onto a screen along with the music. The first known illustrated music video, was by Edward B Marks and Joe Stern in 1894. • The overall function of technology that is used in music videos is increasing, due to the importance of music artists staying ahead in music culture in society. This can be seen through the use of animation, which has be incorporated into music videos. An example of this would be Radiohead's “House of Cards” music video. In the creation of the “house of card’s”, light deflection and ranging technology was used. • The technology that is used in music videos, has the ability to change what the intended audience expect from a certain artist. This increase and improvement of the use of technology in music videos, has meant that music videos have become more of an art form in today’s society. • Over several years there has been several trends in the use of technology, in music videos. Examples of these trends would be the use of the “fish eye” lens, which was a main feature of technology in the 90’s.

  7. My influences as a result of this research • Throughout the research that has taken place, in order to gather information for my own music video for my media coursework, I have gained information about the different aspects of music videos. I have used the results of the research presented to improve my own ideas, and how to incorporate mise en scene, lighting and technology into my own project. • I have also learnt that certain conventions and codes need to be analysed for different types of music videos, as this will have an affect on the intended and actual audience of my own project. • By analysing existing music videos, I have been able to decide what genre of music will be used in my music video. I have chosen the genre of “pop”, as I believe that through this genre many different techniques can be applied to ensure that the music videos meets the needs of the target audience. The analysis of several artists music videos such as , Ed Sheeran, Jessie J, Katy Perry and many more, has led me to believe that pop music videos can be based on various storylines, actions or images.

  8. Bibliography http://webpages.shepherd.edu/BREICH01/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wikiPopular_music#History http://www.slideshare.net/XXnatalieXX/codes-and-conventions-of-music-videos-4602026 http://www.slideshare.net/guest60af28/media-music-video-codes-and-conventions-presentation-1994185 http://www.history.com/news/2011/08/01/the-music-video-before-music-television/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_video http://stagevu.com/video/kunfecrwsanj http://www.shinemusic.com.au/musicresources/History-of-Pop-Music.aspx http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pop_music

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