Tower Crane Safety Regulations Chuck Lemon Division of Occupational Safety & Health
Current Regulations that cover Tower Cranes • WAC 296–155–525 • ANSI B30.3 – 1990 • OSHA 29 CFR 1926–550 Subpart N
Upcoming New Regulations • WAC 296–880 (this number could change) Available on L&I’s Website ASME B30.3 – 2004 (effective now, not adopted in rule) OSHA’s New Crane Rule (C-DAC) Available in OSHA’s Website
What the current rules sayWAC 296 – 525 • (2)(a) Operate all cranes per manufacturer’s specifications • (2)(d) Designate a competent person to inspect all machinery and equipment prior to use and periodically during use to make sure it is safe.
What the current rules sayWAC 296 – 525 (cont.) • (2)(e) Have a competent person, or a government or private agency recognized by L&I perform a thorough annual inspection of the hoisting equipment and maintain a permanent record of these inspections. • (2)(f) A tag line must be used on all loads that swing freely. Tag lines must be held by experienced persons.
What the current rules sayWAC 296 – 525 (cont.) • (5)(a) Tower Cranes must be erected, jumped and dismantled under the immediate supervision of a competent person. • (5)(b) Tower cranes must be erected, maintained, and used per the manufacturer’s specifications. All modifications must be approved by the manufacturer and engineered by a PE.
What the current rules sayWAC 296 – 525 (cont.) • (5)(c) A professional engineer must certify that the crane foundations and underlying soil are adequate support for the tower crane. • (5)(e) Prior to installing a climbing tower crane within an existing building or new construction, a structural engineer must certify that the building is designed to withstand the torque & floor loading created by the crane to be installed.
What the current rules sayWAC 296 – 525 (cont.) • (5)(f) Tower cranes erected on new foundations must be tested per ANSI B30.3-1990 Chapter 3-1. • This test would include all functional motions, limiting devices, and brakes for operation. • Limiting devices must be checked for proper setting.
What the current rules sayWAC 296 – 525 (cont.) • The functional tests must include slewing, trolleying, and hoisting with frequent stops, starts, and reversals. • The functional motion test should continue for 15 minutes during which all controls, drives, and braking means engaged shall have functioned correctly.
What the current rules sayWAC 296 – 525 (cont.) • (5)(f)(i) Load test not less than 110% capacity for 15 minutes at the maximum radius. Results of test must be within the manufacturer’s specifications. • (5)(f)(ii) A record of each test must be made and signed by the person responsible for conducting the test. This record must be maintained at the construction site and made part of the firm’s permanent equipment records.
What the current rules sayWAC 296 – 525 (cont.) • (5)(j) Limit switches must be installed and kept properly adjusted. Limit switches must provide the following functions: • (i) Safely limit the travel of the trolley to prevent it from hitting the outer end of the jib. • (ii) Limit the upward travel of the load block to limit two-blocking • (iii) Lower over travel limiting devices must be provided for all load hoists where hook area is not visible to the operator • (iv) Limit the load being lifted in a manner whereby no more than 110% of the maximum rated load can be lifted or moved.
What the current rules sayWAC 296 – 525 (cont.) • (5)(k) Only use tower cranes for the proper handling of freely suspended loads, they are not to be used for pulling vehicles, removing pilings, pull away loads which are attached to the ground or walls. • (5)(p) Tower cranes must have a a functional slewing brake. When crane is out of operation, the jib/boom must be pointed downwind and the slewing brake released so it can weathervane.
What the current rules sayWAC 296 – 525 (cont.) • (5)(q) Tower cranes must have a functional braking system on the trolley. An automatic brake or device must be installed which will immediately stop and lock the trolley in the event that the trolley rope breaks. • (5)(r) All electrical equipment must be grounded and protection must be provided against lightning.
What the current rules sayWAC 296 – 525 (cont.) • (5)(t) All brakes must automatically set in event of power failure. • (5)(u) Climbing jack systems must be equipped with over-pressure relief valves, direct-reading gauges, and pilot-operated hydraulic check valves. These must be able to prevent jack from retracting should a hydraulic line or fitting rupture or fail.
What the current rules sayWAC 296 – 525 (cont.) • (5)(v) During periods of high winds or weather affecting visibility, i.e., fog, etc. only handle loads that are consistent with good safety practices. The practices must be agreed upon by the operator and the person in charge of the construction job, with due consideration given to the manufacturer’s recommendations.
What the current rules sayWAC 296 – 525 (cont.) • (5)(x) Tower cranes must be inspected & maintained per the manufacturer’s recommendations or more frequently if reason to suspect a possible defect or weakening of any portion of the structure or equipment. • (5)(y) Guy wires, wedges, braces or other supports must be inspected at the beginning and midpoint of each work shift to ensure they are functioning as intended.
What the current rules sayWAC 296 – 525 (cont.) • (6)(b) Tower cranes must not be erected or raised when the wind velocity at the worksite exceeds 20 MPH or as specified by the manufacturer. • (6)(c) Tower crane operators must be trained and experienced in tower crane operations. • (6)(f) Buffers must be provided at both ends of travel of the trolley.
What the current rules sayWAC 296 – 525 (cont.) • (6)(h) All hammerhead tower cranes must meet the requirements for design, construction, installation, testing, maintenance, inspection, and operation as prescribed by the manufacturer.
Questions? • Contact information: • Chuck Lemon • (360) 902-4669 • Lemc235@lni.wa.gov