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  1. UNIVERSITA’ DEGLI STUDI DI PAVIAFacoltà di Lettere e Filosofia, Scienze Politiche, Giurisprudenza, Ingegneria, EconomiaCORSO DI LAUREA SPECIALISTICA IN EDITORIA E COMUNICAZIONE MULTIMEDIALE LA COMUNICAZIONE FUNDRAISING –ORIENTED ALL’INTERNO DEL CULTURAL PLANNING Relatore: Tesi di laurea di: Chiar. mo Prof. Mario Dossoni Mauro Vasini Correlatore: Chiar. mo Prof. Fabio Muzzio

  2. THE CULTURAL PLANNING Recently, decentralization and subsidiarity are increasing the strength of local governments. So that: • more and more players can pursue political strategies not to converge. • a common strategy can only be achieved through shared decision making, negotiations and mutual influence.

  3. THE CULTURAL PLANNING Background • 1970s, Usa: urban theories by Mumford and Perloff. • The whole system theory: municipalities, not being able to control urban development, setting out their conditions. What is it • A process that introduces a cultural / artistic element in territorial planning (eg. info, initiatives, services ..). • 1970s-1980s: conservation, enhancement and promotion. • Nowadays: soft elements (integration, access to cultural consumption). Role • Financial support to the community. • coordination in defining the activities.

  4. THE CULTURAL PLANNING Why • Globalization has made the contact between different cultures much easier. • Growth of local autonomy entrusted to local governments. • Emergency to retrain cultural life to areas affected by slump. Method Project Cycle Management (PCM): 1. Objectives: the needs that you want to pursue. 2. Analysis: evaluation (assessment) of cultural resources. 3. Strategy: actions to be developed to reach the goal. 4. Evaluating proposals: best selection strategies. 5. Implementation: carrying-out and monitoring the plan.

  5. THE CULTURAL PLANNING Two urban cases: • Glasgow. The Creative City and its Cultural Economy, 1990. Advertising campaign “Glasgow’s Miles Better” + Cultural festivals program • Torino. Il Secondo Piano Strategico dell’area metropolitana, 2006. Fondazione di Comunità doings along with support by Compagnia di San Paolo improved cultural spots supply (e.g. Venaria Reale royal palace)

  6. THE CULTURAL PLANNING The italian way to planning culture: • Strategic plans = «real whish lists » [cit. Sacco & Caliandro] • Preserving the existent + enhancing past identity solely = freezing the in land identity • Making risky choices and considering possible mistakes along the way is a necessary condition to promoting a newly and truly innovative cultural process.

  7. THE CULTURAL PLANNING The cultural program’s activities: PROGRAM Protection (e.g. pushingtodeclare a bulding cultural heritage) Conservation (e.g. torestore a palace) Project Idea Enhancement (e.g. setting up a music festival) Management (e.g. establishing a foundation) Promotion (e.g. fundraising, sponsorship) Fruition (e.g. extending a museumtimetable)

  8. FUNDRAISING OVER CULTURE Fundraising definitions through authors: “….it is primarily the practice of strategic planning to one organization, in terms of its economic sustainability … “ [W.E.Lindhal] “…it is an effective and efficient management of connections between an organization and actors (individual and collective) within the environments in which it does operates: it's essentially ‘relationship fundraising’…” [K. Burnett]

  9. FUNDRAISING OVER CULTURE What fundraising is not merely supposed to be: • It's not just seeking for sponsors: this is only one possible way to involve actors, but it is not necessarily the right one for your project an the organization that intends to do fundraising. • it is not an unplanned and temporary request for resources, with no other consideration than an hasty, generic recognition; or at best the apposition of the brand of the backer. • It is not the purpose or goal of a nonprofit organization, but only a TOOL.

  10. FUNDRAISING OVER CULTURE How is Italy doing thus far: The onward and steady decline in public funding for arts, culture and heritage has prompted the Italian cultural organizations to seek new forms of support. Predominance of public financial model (between 60% and 90% of the total budget comes from public sources) over private revenue compared to total budget (16-18% in cases of excellence, under 10% in other cases) . Reduction in fund allocation by Ministry for Arts and Culture from 2003 to 2009: -18.7% in monetary terms, -20.6% in real terms.

  11. FUNDRAISING OVER CULTURE HOW DO CITIZENS JOIN THE ISSUE: Fonte: lndagine Centro Studi e Ricerche G. Imperatori –Unicab, 2010 HOW DO BANK FOUNDATIONS JOIN THE ISSUE: 2005 2006 2007 2008 30,6% 30,7% 30, 6% 30,6% Arts and cultural activities 15,6% 22,3% 10,4% 14,98% Voluntary / philantropy / charity 10,7% 11,0% 14,4% 15,08% Ricerca scientifica e tecnologica Fonte: Acri, 2010

  12. FUNDRAISING OVER CULTURE HOW DO COMPANIES JOIN THE ISSUE: Fonte: Istituto Italiano Donazione 2010 “Impresa e filantropia” III edizione

  13. FUNDRAISING ORIENTED COMMUNICATION Production ofInformations and Knowledge [objectives /values / identity + doings’ update] CULTURE The ongoing making of process: Production ofInterplays and Social Relations [What and Howcompaniescommunicate in ordertodistinguishmarkets and stakeholders] COMMUNICATION (eitheroffline or online) FUNDRAISING Production ofIdentity and Membership [Making up ofrelationshipsbetween a company and itsstakeholders. Brandassociationstrengthening]

  14. FUNDRAISING ORIENTED COMMUNICATION Offline communication: • Advertising Tools: press, TV, radio, posters, flyers, means of transport, etc. e.g. “Was für ein Skandal” motto for Vienna’s Leopold Museum opening, 2001. • Public Relations (PR) Tools: statement, press conference, TV presentations, media in general, etc. • Direct Marketing Tools: telemarketing campaigns (call center or outsourcing) e.g. “It’s Alive” motto for Boston Museum of Science’s opening, 1997.

  15. FUNDRAISING ORIENTED COMMUNICATION Online communication: • E-net philanthropy: Main tool: web site e.g. Arena di Verona web site: www.arena.it Pros: - Inner benefits: company’s employees are retained by making them feeling part of a cultural project. So, a Company Culture is made up little by little. - Outer benefits: drawing various kind of audiences through spreading info about company’s background. Increasing of company’s relationships and territorial turistic promotion (rent & reputational seeking). Cons: - Organization and Management: troubles in recruiting qualify personnel with different skills. - Management costs: initial fixed costs may curb company development. - Checkpoint and front web paging unwanted: some web sites promote too many cultural events, thus limitating appealing to company head site.


  17. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS A possible instance to start from? • What? Scientific and Cultural Facilities District (SCFD) • Where? Denver, CO (USA) • Since when? 1989 – onward • How is it applied? It is a slight but broadly applicable fee:every ten dollars spent on goods and services, a penny is donated to the coffers of the public bureau that deals with cultural facilities. • What about outcomes? The bureau was able to have a significant amount of funds (37 millions in 2001) that has led to a spectacular development of cultural industries in the metropolitan area: in 1992-2001 span, the employment in cultural field was increased by 188% and the overall increase in economic impact was increased by 73%. • To end up. SCDF proves how resources in prop of culture may turn as an actual strategy of economic and social development to the local system.

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