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The Church in the Middle Ages

The Church in the Middle Ages

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The Church in the Middle Ages

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  1. The Churchin the Middle Ages Title: Outline of the Church Structure

  2. The Church West • Catholic • Priest cannot marry • Pope is separate from Emperor (can clash) • Services in Latin • Based in Rome East • Greek Orthodox • Priests can marry • Emperor is the head of the Church (Patriarch) • Services in Greek • Based in Byzantium Religious beliefs create a schism (separation)

  3. I: The Catholic Church in the MA provided for the following: • Conversion of the barbarians • Education – priests only ones who could read; copied manuscripts • Art, architecture, and music – all art religious; cathedral; music – Gregorian chants • Blessing, ceremonies • knights carried icon or relic blessed before going into battle; • Coronation – Church creates the king • Crowning of Charlemagne • Implied the Pope could make kings • So the Pope must be more powerful than the king St. Boniface Icons

  4. II. Reasons the Church was so Powerful: • Investiture – appointment of priests; • Priests influenced EVERYBODY • even tried to control war – “Peace of God,” no fighting on weekends & or near the church B. Canon Law – religious law, at least as important as secular law C. Promise of salvation in heaven – made life bearable – especially to serfs D. Seven Sacraments –only administered by priest & only way you could go to heaven

  5. Reasons the Church was so Powerful: 7 Sacraments 1. Baptism – admission of faith 2. Confirmation – training in church rituals (prayer, giving gifts of Holy Spirit) 3. Penance –reconciliation – forgiveness by God 4. Communion – Eucharist-Lord’s Supper 5. Marriage –formal union of man & woman 6. Ordination – training & commitment of clergy 7. Last rites –– final blessing Last Rites Penance All 7 sacraments require the Church Eucharist

  6. How the Church controlled people excommunication – denied a person the sacraments until he corrected behavior *Interdict – entire area excommunicated Inquisition to punish heresy – those who contradicted basic teachings of church, punished & executed – strictest in Spain Controlled economics by not allowing usury – no (or low) interest on loan of money Collected Tithes (10%)[a church tax]

  7. Structure of the Roman Catholic Church Regular Clergy –men and women who withdraw from the world live according to set rules dedicated to a certain task (Called monks, friars, or nuns.) Benedictines – farmed, medical care, schools, copied manuscripts Templars & Hospitalers – cared for sick Franciscans – ministered to lower classes Dominicans – educated upper class; fought heresy; Jesuits were later order at time of Reformation

  8. III. Structure of the Roman Catholic Church A. Secular Clergy – live and work in the regular world • Pope – Vatican – descendants of St. Peter; elected by cardinals • Cardinals – advisors/ princes of Church • Archbishops – each leads an area called Archdiocese – major division – most had a cathedral • Bishops – diocese –subdivision of archdiocese • Priests – parish – & subdivision of diocese

  9. IV. Problems with the Church • Simony – buying and selling of church offices & sacrament • Indulgences – paying for forgiveness- What happened to the poor? Leads to exploitation • Political power – kings began to want independence; leads to fights. • Wealth– Donation of Pepin (the Papal States) – given by Pepin (Charlemagne’s father) in return for crown; beginning of church’s wealth, leads to corruption and greed

  10. Create a compare and contrast pyramid of feudalism and the church hierarchy King Pope Lord Cardinals Archbishops Knights Bishops Serfs Priests Feudalism Roman Catholic Church