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Collaboration?

Collaboration?

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Collaboration?

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  1. Collaboration? Thanks to Dr. John Cressey for the opening slides

  2. How would you describe collaboration?

  3. How would you describe collaboration? Please take a moment to write your own definition…

  4. What is Collaboration? A mutually beneficial relationship entered into by two or more individuals to achieve results they are more likely to achieve together than alone. Michael Winer and Karen Ray Collaboration Handbook, 1994

  5. What is Collaboration in 2005? An on-going process of critical information sharing, evaluation, and documentation, by two or more individuals, to help achieve goals that are more likely to occur over time by working together as a team than by being assumed by just one.

  6. Collaboration is no longer a choice; it is a necessity. Working together is not just rhetoric – it is essential in order to address the increasingly diverse and sometimes daunting needs of students. If we work together, both when it is easy and when it is difficult, we can meet these needs. Marilyn Friend, Ph.D. University of North Carolina

  7. The School’s Mission Statement or Philosophy Sets the Tone • The principal is key to establishing and then maintaining the collaborative spirit of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) --- the mission statement often reflects the collaboration philosophy. • Collaboration starts as a community of professionals working together to improve achievement for all students --- this often involves the establishment of a collaborative culture both with the school and the community it serves --- a climate of support and trust.

  8. “Alone we can do little, together we can do so much”- Helen Keller

  9. “Alone we can do little, together we can do so much”- Helen Keller

  10. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly… Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

  11. Key Collaborators • Student and Teacher • Teacher and Teacher • Teacher and Specialists (S&L, OT, PT, APE, Counseling) • Teacher and Principal or other Administrator (VP, Director) • Teacher and Family • Interagency Collaboration

  12. Collaboration & Consultation--- What Is the Critical Difference? • Consultationgenerally involves an expert who knows “something special” • Collaboration means working together for a common goal --- usually a student being successful in the least restrictive environment. • Collaborative Consultation is “an interactive process that enables groups of people with diverse expertise to generate creative solutions to mutually defined problems” (Idol, Nevin, & Paolucci-Whitcomb, 1994)

  13. P E N T Collaborative Consultation Diana Browning Wright; G. Roy Mayer

  14. Four Interconnected Phases of Consultation I. Develop an Environment Conducive to Teacher Growth and Change (Initial Steps Prior to Plan Writing and Ongoing Support Activities) IV. Provide Follow-Up Support (Maintaining Success) II. Jointly Develop the Program (Development of Written Plan in Meeting) III. Implement the Program (Facilitating Initial Implementation Steps After the Plan was Developed)

  15. Ineffective Style of Interaction • Giving advice • Being an expert • Accentuating the positive • Sharing one’s success HO-A /

  16. Role Plays • Giving Advice – • Identifying the Problem – • Being the Expert – • Accentuating the Positive – • Sharing Successes –

  17. Swamp or Alligators?

  18. Phase One:Developing the Appropriate Environment 1.Dodevelop solutions and strategies together. Don’toffer immediate solutions or assume total responsibility for the solution. 2.Doengage in collaboration with the teacher in understanding the problem. Develop strategies together.Don’t become an expert by developing a question and answer dialogue, or solving the problem for the teacher. 3.Dolet the teachers know that you have heard and respect both their thoughts and feelings about the problem.Don’ttake teachers’ mind off their problems by cheering them up. HO-C

  19. Phase One:Developing the Appropriate Environment 4. Do individualize a strategy with the teacher based on an assessment of the problem.Don’t share your past successes as a way of giving the teacher a suggestion.

  20. Basic Communication Skills • Paraphrasing • Clarification • Summarizing • Nonverbal HO-D /

  21. Phase One:Developing the Appropriate Environment 5. Do paraphrase what the consultee has said to convey understanding.Don’t rely on your attention alone to convey understanding. 6. Do restate your confusion and ask for clarification. Don’t wait, hoping that your confusion will be resolved by itself. 7. Do summarize the main points the consultee has said. Don’t depend on the consultee to remember what has been said.

  22. Phase One:Developing the Appropriate Environment 8. Do make frequent use of “I” messages in gathering information.Don’t rely on direct questions or requests to gather information. 9. Do reflect affect statements until the consultee indicates a readiness to pursue content. Don’t move to content areas in the face of affect expressions. 10. Do reflect both affect and content statements.Don’t move to content areas in the face of affect expressions or to affect in the face of content expressions. 11. Do sit near the consultee with a relaxed, open posture. Don’t sit opposite the consultee behind a desk, table, or table with a formal posture.

  23. Consultant Misjudges Timing

  24. Phase One:Developing the Appropriate Environment 12. Do write when you are speaking and say what you are writing. Don’t write when the consultee is talking, and don’t keep your notes to yourself. 13. Do use a team approach to address problem behavior. Don’t expect a teacher to address problem behavior by him-or-her self. 14. Do take a proactive approach and provide service for students at-risk. Don’t wait till the problems occur or escalate to address them.

  25. Four Interconnected Phases of Consultation I. Develop an Environment Conducive to Teacher Growth and Change (Initial Steps Prior to Plan Writing and Ongoing Support Activities) IV. Provide Follow-Up Support (Maintaining Success) II. Jointly Develop the Program (Development of Written Plan in Meeting) III. Implement the Program (Facilitating Initial Implementation Steps After the Plan was Developed)

  26. Phase Two:Program Development 15. Do use language that communicates. Don’t use technical language (HO-H) 16. Do provide work relief. Don’t add a considerable amount of work to a teacher’s load. 17. Do suggest a strategy that is not initially too different from what teacher is doing or has done. Don’t suggest a strategy that is considerably different from what the teacher is doing or has done. HO-C /

  27. Phase Two:Program Development 18. Do give priority to strategies that build on skills the teacher already possesses. Don’t encourage strategies that require the teacher to learn many new skills. 19. Do determine the payoff for both the current ineffective strategy and the proposed new strategy for the consultee.  Realize the effort needed to implement the new program and rally the environment to provide compensating support.Don’t request that the consultee implement a new program without providing compensating support.

  28. Phase Two:Program Development 18. Do give priority to strategies that build on skills the teacher already possesses. Don’t encourage strategies that require the teacher to learn many new skills. 19. Do determine the payoff for both the current ineffective strategy and the proposed new strategy for the consultee.  Realize the effort needed to implement the new program and rally the environment to provide compensating support.Don’t request that the consultee implement a new program without providing compensating support.

  29. Phase Two:Program Development 20. In other words, Do tailor the program to the environment and teacher’s skills. Don’t assume the teacher can initially implement the best program for the student. (Storytelling) 21. Do be sure the teacher starts with some degree of responsibility. Don’t assume total responsibility for implementing the program.

  30. Average Day for a Consultant

  31. How Can Instituting “FAST FACTS” Help a School ? • Streamlines collaboration and sharing of critical student information – encourages teaming. • Provides specific help in understanding modifications and accommodations for: lessons, projects, homework, etc. • Helps track “what worked” to help the student succeed – provides a “paper trail” that can be shared at meetings with family and staff. • Helps the team to prepare appropriate goals and objectives prior meetings. (Term: “Fast Facts” developed by Dr. John Cressey)

  32. Four Interconnected Phases of Consultation I. Develop an Environment Conducive to Teacher Growth and Change (Initial Steps Prior to Plan Writing and Ongoing Support Activities) IV. Provide Follow-Up Support (Maintaining Success) II. Jointly Develop the Program (Development of Written Plan in Meeting) III. Implement the Program (Facilitating Initial Implementation Steps After the Plan was Developed)

  33. Phase Three:Implementing the Program 22. Do be present on the day the strategy is initiated to assist the teacher. Don’t wait for the teacher to implement the strategy without you. 23. Do provide cueing, reminders, and modeling to facilitate strategy implementation. Don’t rely on verbal reminders to insure strategy implementation. Activity: Think-pair-share 1. Divide into dyads in your AB groups. 2. Discuss ways to accomplish #16

  34. Phase Three:Implementing the Program 24. Do prompt just enough to bring about the response.. Don’t overuse prompts. 25. Do be available to help resolve problems that may develop. Don’t wait for the teacher to adjust to the problems. 26. Do give immediate and frequent feedback.(Student progress alone in usually NOT sufficiently reinforcing for teachers or aides to maintain program implementation.)

  35. Phase Three:Implementing the Program 27. Do use of variety of ways to provide reinforcing feedback. Don’t rely on your verbal support to met the teacher’s need for reinforcement.. Activity: Think-pair-share 1. Divide into dyads in your AB groups. 2. Discuss ways to accomplish #26 28. Do use on-going data combined with social praise to provide feedback on successful student and teacher change. Don’t use data only for providing feedback and monitoring change.

  36. Four Interconnected Phases of Consultation I. Develop an Environment Conducive to Teacher Growth and Change (Initial Steps Prior to Plan Writing and Ongoing Support Activities) IV. Provide Follow-Up Support (Maintaining Success) II. Jointly Develop the Program (Development of Written Plan in Meeting) III. Implement the Program (Facilitating Initial Implementation Steps After the Plan was Developed)

  37. Phase Four:Providing Follow-up Support 29. Do identify and use a variety of reinforcing sources to support and maintain desired teacher behavior. Don’t continue to be the teacher’s only source of reinforcement or support for the programs’ maintenance and success. (Use parents, students, teachers, administrators, classroom visitors) 30. Do encourage and support teacher statements of pride and competence. Don’t leave such outcomes to develop themselves. 31. Do use prompts, directions, cues, and modeling to facilitate the occurrence of the next step in shaping the new behavior. Don’t wait for the teacher to assume more responsibility on his/her own..

  38. Phase Four:Providing Follow-up Support 32. Do gradually reduce prompts and reinforcers. Don’t abruptly reduce them. 33. Do point out similarities between situations and communicate an expectation of generalization. Don’t leave to chance the generalization of newly acquired strategies by the teacher. Activity: Think-pair-share 1. Divide into dyads in your AB groups. 2. Discuss ways to accomplish #32

  39. Potential Reinforcers for Staff • Verbal Praise • Written Praise • Tangible Rewards • Miscellaneous Handout I –

  40. Consultation Points • Major Consultation Points: Mayer - • Top Ten Behavioral Consulting Tips: Browning-Wright -

  41. BSPs • Mission: create an “adequate” Behavior Support Plan • Addressing the 6 keys for effective behavior support • Written as a team, with continuous communication and teaming

  42. BSP QE: What is it? • Measures the extent to which the 6 consensus criteria components of effective positive behavior support are present in a behavior plan • Produces scores of Adequate (Good or Superior 24-17 points) or Inadequate (Underdeveloped to Weak 0-16 points) • Examines 12 areas for quality and internal consistency

  43. BSP-QE evaluates 6 Keys • Behavior serves a purpose • Behavior is related to environment • BSPs should address both purpose (through replacement behavior) and environment (remove need for problem behavior to attain the goal)

  44. BSP-QE evaluates 6 Keys • New behavior must be taught (or elicited) and reinforced • Reactive strategies should be described (cue replacement behavior taught, specify how to handle the problem behavior, debrief following the behavior, consequences [if required]) • Communication should be two-way between team members and stakeholders, specifying manner, frequency and nature of the communication

  45. Training Improves Plan Quality Superior6% Superior18% Weak16% Good36% Weak30% SUMMIT Pre-SummitPlans Post-SummitPlans Underdeveloped19% Good47% Underdeveloped28% These changes are statistically significant! χ2 = 15.64***

  46. Effects of Training on Quality of Plans

  47. Percentage Change in Plan Quality

  48. Training Improves Plan Quality Inadequate 35% Adequate42% Inadequate 58% Adequate65% SUMMIT Pre-SummitPlans Post-SummitPlans These changes are statistically significant! χ2 = 11.41*** ODDS RATIO = 2.1 χ2 = 11.41*** ODDS RATIO = 2.1

  49. Relationship Between Component Scores and Plan Quality Chi Square = 54.22***