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Aquatic Ecology Envirothon Training

Aquatic Ecology Envirothon Training

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Aquatic Ecology Envirothon Training

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  1. Aquatic EcologyEnvirothon Training By: Allen Pattillo and Eric Mammoser Iowa State University Fisheries Extension

  2. Essential Topics • Aquatic Ecology • Abiotic • Biotic • Community • Aquatic Resource Issues • Aquatic Resource Management and Protection

  3. Pennsylvania Conservation Commission • 14 members • Charge is to ensure wise use of natural resources and to protect and restore the natural environment • Programs: • Agricultural Air Quality Task Force • Commercial Manure Hauler and Broker Certification Program • Dirt and Gravel Road Maintenance Program (DGRMP) • Nutrient Management Certification Program • Nutrient Management Program • Odor Management Certification Program • Odor Management Program • Resource Enhancement and Protection (REAP)

  4. Aquatic Ecology: AbioticWater Chemical Properties Physical Properties Flow Rate Lentic (lake) vs. Lotic (river) Species tolerances to flow Temperature Dissolved oxygen Thermocline Metabolism Turbidity Water clarity Photosynthesis habitat Surface tension Adhesion and cohesion Gas transfer • pH • P = -log(H+[concentration]) • Scale from 0 (acid) to 14 (base) • Pure water = pH 7 • Alkalinity • Concentration of Carbonates in the water • Buffers water pH • Hardness • Concentration of cations in the water • Nutrients available to plants and animals

  5. Aquatic Ecology: CommunityStreams Physical, Chemical, and Biological changes in the stream continuum • Gradient/Flow rate • Substrate/turbidity • Temperature • Water quality • Species

  6. Aquatic Resource Management and Protection: Restoration of Aquatic Organisms Migratory fish species restoration • Recognizing the biological and economic importance of migratory fish species, the restoration of these fish to Commonwealth waters is a top Commission priority. The Commission will work in concert with others committed to the restoration effort to ensure the success of these programs. Strategies for restoring migratory fish • Ensure the restoration of anadromous species through the use of adequate Commission resources and through active participation in restoration partnerships. • Promote migratory fish restoration efforts to ensure long-term support for their protection and management. • Remove barriers to migratory fish runs and implement fish passage when removal is not feasible. • Restrict harvest of migratory fish during the restoration process. • Actively enforce management regulations designed to protect restoration efforts. • Artificially propagate shad and other migratory fish until wild stocks achieve self-sustaining levels. • Develop effective outreach and education programs to promote public awareness and the restoration of migratory fish runs.

  7. Fishes Identification: Catfish-ish Channel Catfish Ictaluruspunctatus Scattered dark spots on light colored back and side Forked caudal fin Brown Bullhead Ameiurusnebulosus Brown/black mottling On body Smaller body with more Rounded head Flathead Catfish Polydictisolivaris Wide, flat head Lower jaw projects In front of upper jaw Eyes on top of head, Not side

  8. Fish Identification: Trout-types • Brook Trout (Salvelinusfontinalis) • Green-ish body • Slightly forked caudal fin • Wavy lines/blotches on back • Blue halos around red spots • Brown Trout (Salmotrutta) • Red and black spots on a brown/yellow body • Nearly straight edged caudal fin

  9. Fish Identification: Sunfishes Bluegill (Lepomismacrochirus) Dark spot on back of anal and dorsal find Dark colored opercular flap Yellow breast and blue gills Compressed or thin body form Smallmouth Bass Micropterusdolomieu Dark brown color Dark mottling on sides Jaw does not extend beyond eye Rock Bass Ambloplitesrupestris Black edges on dorsal, Caudal and anal fin Most scales on sides have Flecks or dark spots Largemouth Bass Micropterussalmoides Jaw extendes well beyond eye Green/olive in color Broad, black stripe down side

  10. Fish Identification: Pike vs Muskie Northern Pike Esoxlucius Horizontal markings Black spots on all fins except pectoral Rounded caudal fin Chain Pickerel Esoxniger Green chainlike pattern on yellow side 3-5 pores Muskellunge Esoxmasquinongy Verticle banding No spots on pectoral or pelvic fin Pointed caudal fin

  11. Fish Identification: Perches Walleye Sander vitreus Green/bronze in color White edge on bottom of caudal fin Teeth!! 5-12 dusky saddles Yellow Perch Percaflavescens 6-9 saddles Yellow in color Black blotch on rear of dorsal fin

  12. Fish Identification – Eel vs Lamprey Sea Lamprey Petromyzonmarinus 2 dorsal fins Oral disc for a mouth Multiple gill slits American Eel Anguilla rostrata Long dorsal fin extends for more than half the body Continuous with caudal and anal fin Single gill slit Has jaw

  13. Fish Identification - weirdos Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenseroxyrhynchus Scutes along body Barbles under the rostrum Mouth on bottom Caudal fin longer on top Paddlefish Polyodonspathula Large snout/rostrum shaped like a canoe paddle (1/3 body length) Gray/blue in color VERY large mouth

  14. Fish Identification – Small stream fish Blacknose dace Rhinichthysatratulus Black stripe along side Brown top with lighter bottom Greensided darter Etheostomablennioides Green fins 6-7 saddles Mottled sculpin Cottusbairdi Dark brown to black mottling Speckled chin

  15. Fish Identification – bottom feeders White Sucker Catostomuscommersoni Mouth on under side of face Notch on lower lip Common Carp Cyprinuscarpio Large scales Barbles on mouth

  16. Fish ID Striped Bass Moronesaxatilis Black stripes along the length of the body

  17. Aquatic Ecology: CommunityStreams Physical, Chemical, and Biological changes in the stream continuum Trophic levels and Niches along the stream continuum

  18. Aquatic Ecology: AbioticWater Influence on Watershed Influence of the Water Cycle

  19. Aquatic Ecology: AbioticWater Watershed/Stream Identification Stream Order

  20. Aquatic Ecology: BioticAquatic Organisms Organism Identification Life Cycles of Aquatic Organisms

  21. Aquatic Ecology: BioticAquatic Organisms Adaptations of Aquatic Organisms Habitat Needs

  22. Aquatic Ecology: CommunityWetlands Identification of aquatic and wetland environments Functions and Values of Wetlands

  23. Aquatic Ecology: CommunityStreams Energy flow in aquatic food chains