PHYSICS Division Overview Finance Network March 28, 2005 Lesta Nadel
Physics Division Mission • The mission of the LBNL Physics Division is to discover the particles that compose the universe and to understand the forces that shaped the origin and fate of the universe. • We accomplish this through an integrated program of theory and experimental science that leverages the unique combination of scientific, engineering and computational resources of Berkeley Lab and the University of California
In support of this mission the Physics Division will • Play a leadership role in particle physics experiments and observational cosmology through the development of new initiatives, through the design, construction and operation of new experiments and through the analysis of data from those detectors • Play a leadership role in formal and phenomenological particle physics theory and theoretical cosmology • Strengthen the university-based high energy physics program in the United States through our scientific collaborations, through a program of workshops and visitors and through access to leading-edge facilities. • Carry out long-term research and development to define the detector and computing technologies needed for the future of the national high energy physics program • Provide service to the international high energy physics program through the compilation of high energy physics data and the publication of the Review of Particle Physics • Educate the next generation of scientific leaders through our graduate and undergraduate programs and through postdoctoral appointments, including strengthening the University’s physical science educational mission. • Communicate the accomplishments of the high energy physics program outside our high energy physics community and transfer our new technologies to other sciences and to the nation • Contribute to the national program through service on planning panels, advisory committees, program reviews, scientific societies, and University programs. • Provide a working environment that is nurturing and intellectually challenging and that respects the contributions of our diverse staff • Protect the safety and health of our employees and the natural environment through a proactive Environment, Health and Safety program
Relevance to Laboratory’s mission • The Physics Division supports the Laboratory mission by • Performing leading multidisciplinary research in the general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and environmental protection. • Developing and operating unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. • Educating and training future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. • Transferring knowledge and technological innovations, and fostering productive relationships among Berkeley Lab’s research programs, universities, and industry.
About the Division • Division Director and General Sciences ALD – Jim Siegrist • Deputy Director – Stu Loken • Origins hark back to the establishment of the “Rad Lab”, LRL, which became LBL, which became LBNL • Strong ties to UC Berkeley • Important partnerships with other divisions, engineering and computer sciences
Organization • Staffing picture (HRIS snapshot January 2005) • Staff Scientists 45 • Faculty 25 • Postdocs 19 • GSRAs/Student Assistants 28 • Education Program Administrator 1 • Participating retirees (overlaps SS/Faculty) ~20 • Guest and Visitors ~150 • Resource Analyst – L. Nadel, Project Manager – D. Peterson (SNAP/Engineering), Research Group Administrators and AA’s • Primarily located in the Bldg. 50 complex • Laboratory space in 50, and the Microsystems Laboratory in 70
Major Program Areas • New theoretical ideas from LBNL challenge current and future experiments • Current experiments at the Tevatron Accelerator at Fermilab and later ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will probe the energy frontier and the limits of the standard model • Our programs in supernova cosmology and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are exploring the 95% of the universe that lies beyond the standard model (the dark side – dark energy/dark matter) • A reactor-based experiment can initiate the next phase of neutrino physics • The Particle Data Group (PDG) provides an indispensable service as the repository and evaluator of results in high energy physics
LBNL Base Program • Accelerator-based • Collider Detector Facility (CDF) at Fermilab Tevatron • BaBar (B-Bbar) at SLAC • ATLAS at LHC at CERN • R&D for ATLAS Upgrades and for International Linear Collider (ILC) • Cosmology • Supernova Cosmology Program (SCP), Supernova (SN) factory, Atacama Polar Experiment (APEX), South Pole Telescope (SPT) • Neutrinos • KamLAND, R&D for 13 • Theory, PDG
Proton Research • ATLAS • Pixels (a major innovation pioneered at LBNL) • Silicon Strips (major role in fabrication and testing) • Computing (leadership role in collaboration) • Physics (major leadership) • CDF • Continuing responsibilities for operations and significant physics role • Neutrinos • Significant role in KamLAND calibration and physics • Leadership role in a new experiment to measure 13 (LDRD funding)
Electron Research • Linear Collider • Major role in international physics discussions • Significant role in formation of detector collaboration • Detector R&D for silicon detectors (funded by LDRD) and Time Projection Chamber • BaBar • Leadership role in physics analysis • Decreasing role in operations/maintenance • Major role in creation and implementation of new computing model
Non-Accelerator Research • Ongoing studies of Dark Energy using high-redshift supernovae • Nearby Supernova Factory provides needed data on supernovae as distance indicators • SNAP Science Team • CMB theory and computation including Planck Explorer • APEX-SZ moving to analysis phase this year
Back to the Future • “As we enter the 21st century, we have arrived at a special time in our quest to understand the universe… To realize many of these discoveries, it will be necessary to bring together the science of the very large - astronomy - with the science of the very small - particle physics. No longer can one view the study of particle physics and deep space astronomy as separate and distinct. Their futures and goals are now strongly intertwined.” • John Marburger, Feb. 2004, • cover letter for the Physics of the Universe Interagency Working Group Report We are now faced with a revolution in our understanding of nature as profound as that initiated by Einstein’s annus irabilis in 1905.
National Priorities OSTP “Physics of the Universe” report: Highest priority: Exploring the nature of dark energy - JDEM Next step: “Decisive measurements” of CMB polarization Breakthroughs of the Year 1998, 2003 Computing JDEM Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos (NRC): “Measure the polarization of the CMB” “Determine the properties of dark energy” Quantum Universe (HEPAP):“Are dark energy and the Higgs field related?” “What is the dark matter?”
Supernova Program • Supernova Cosmology Project - studies of ~600 high redshift Type Ia supernovae using Keck, Subaru, CFHT etc, and Hubble Space Telescope (Perlmutter, et. al.) • Nearby Supernova Factory - detailed studies of ~300 nearby supernovae, including frequent spectra (Aldering, et. al.) • SNAP - proposed satellite-based experiment to carry out precision measurements of ~2000 Type Ia SNe, plus wide-field survey for weak lensing (Levi and Perlmutter, et. al.) • All three projects were developed here and are Berkeley-led
Current SNAP Concept: Compact and Extremely Simple • Innovative telescope design does IR imaging with room temperature optics • Built in end-to-end optical test capability simplifies Integration and Testing • The fixed telemetry antenna eliminates a major mission risk. • No onboard data analysis: all images are downlinked to Earth • 90 deg Symmetric Focal Plane allows continuous year round science data taking
Particle Cosmology Summary • Berkeley’s program in particle cosmology addresses some of the biggest scientific questions of our age. • As a national lab in a university setting we are able to provide a unique combination of resources and expertise in computing, detectors, and electronics to the particle cosmology community. • Building on our past and recent achievements, we have developed a vision for the next steps needed to understand the composition and forces that shape our Universe.
Theory and PDG • Theory • Continuing efforts on both formal theory (strings) and particle physics phenomenology • Increased commitment to theory leverages new funds from LDRD and campus • Cosmology theory workshops and guest program • Particle Data Group • Publication of Review of Particle Physics • Education program and educational materials • Major effort continues on a new computing system to support PDG activities
Technology • SNAP R&D • Microsystems Lab continues needed R&D on CCDs for Dark Energy studies • Modest R&D program on bolometers has a major impact on studies on CMB and lays foundation for polarization measurement • We are exploring a new multi-disciplinary detector development initiative that we hope will involve several DOE research programs. We are trying to flesh out possibilities this spring
Recent Research Highlights • LBNL makes unique contributions to the national program through a combination of new proposals, advanced detector development, computing innovations and physics analysis: • The best-ever measurement of using the decay mode in BaBar • CDF is seeing early results from Run II in B-physics and high-Pt physics • Completion of the development of state-of-the-art silicon pixel detectors for and excellent progress on production of ATLAS silicon tracking detectors • Commissioning of the Supernova Factory • Significant progress on JDEM/SNAP R&D
Long-term Plans • Complete the commissioning of the ATLAS silicon detectors and contribute significantly to preparations for analysis as a foundation for the ATLAS physics program • We believe that an FY07 start for JDEM construction is appropriate for continued DOE leadership in the most urgent and important problem today, the nature of dark energy
Major Projects and Issues • Super Nova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) a proposed instantiation of the DOE/NASA Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) • A Reactor Experiment to Measure 13 • POLARBEAR • The key issue: How do we reserve funding for FY07 so that it is possible to take advantage of the many outstanding science opportunities?
Continued Dark Energy Investment is Crucial • Investment in detector testing facilities • Will deliver science-grade devices to community now • Foundation for credible cost estimate • Momentum on integrated circuit design • Readout electronics are a long-lead item • Continuity of effort required for success • Calibration is crucial for a Dark Energy Mission • New strategies require validation • Need to optimize science requirements • Match to instrument performance • Foundation for cost control and value • Strong team is in place to push Dark Energy Science forward
Funding Profile • Primary source of funds is DOE-Office of Science, High Energy Physics • B&R categories KA (also laboratory landlord functions) • Funding trends continue to squeeze the program, tough priority setting with concern for risks to future innovation • Competition for funds is from other national laboratories, university research programs
Doe Office of ScienceHigh Energy Physics (HEP)Budget Information ($K)
Guidance on President’s BudgetFY06 Down 5% Relative to FY05 • Must cut costs by 10% taking into account inflation • Will need to cut staff for FY06 relative to our FY05 January plan • Cuts will reduce our contributions to ATLAS commissioning and to early physics • More planned SNAP R&D will be delayed
WFO • Complementary activities- 5-20% of funding, such as: • NASA Hubble Space Telescope observation and analysis and Hubble fellowships • NSF support for Particle Data Group • US-Japan Consortium for HEP funds selected projects each year • University and other DOE IC Collaborations • Library of Congress/National Archives/Endowment for the Humanities – tech transfer, application of methodologies developed in the HEP research program to reconstruction of recorded media
Funding: FY05 DOE Ops funds 16.2M DOE EQU funds 8.4M WFO .6M
Funding Profile - Uses • Labor is predominant cost element • Includes Physicists, engineers, technicians, computer scientist • R&D subcontracts major element of cost for new initiatives • Recharges (care and feeding: space, phones, electricity, computing) are non-trivial
Key Concepts and Challenges • Participation in experiments from conception through sophisticated and refined data analysis • Experiment and Theory - integrated and synergistic • Campus connection- jointly address recruitment and retention issues for faculty in Particle and Astro Physics • Infrastructure and partnerships across divisions in support of “big science” • Compete for resources to initiate new programs, build and maintain national and international collaborations • Resource management – biggest challenge is effective reporting and analysis at hierarchical levels; in a variety of formats; for managers, investigators and sponsors
e.g. - IceCube • IceCube is a one-cubic-kilometer international high-energy neutrino observatory being built and installed in the clear deep ice below the South Pole Station. • NSF initiative – Major Research Equipment (MRE), lead US institution is University of Wisconsin • FY04 funding request - $295.2M through FY2013. This includes construction and commissioning and four years of operation after construction. • Subaward to LBNL, Nuclear Science WFO, with history in Physics and Nuclear Science – PI Robert Stokstad (NS), Project Manager Bill Edwards (ENG) • highly interdisciplinary with staff from Nuclear Science, Physics, Engineering and Computing Science • We are entering Project Year 4, focused on construction and detector commissioning – LBNL proposed Scope of Work estimated at 8.2M$, XX FTE • Basis of our participation is innovation in instrumentation, experience in development and commissioning of instrumentation and data acquisition components, study of neutrinos in both Physics and Nuclear Science divisions
Ice Cube • Prototype project – Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array - AMANDA • constructing a radically different telescope, instead of sensing light, like all telescopes since the time of Galileo, AMANDA responds to a fundamental particle called a neutrino. Neutrino messengers provide a startling new view of the Universe. This was the first practical implementation of the generic ideas formulated many years ago, and re-introduced in late 80's with the twist of using Antarctic ice instead of water. • Early LBNL LDRD support for innovation in instrumentation, tools for data acquisition