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Child, Family, School, and Community S ocialization and Support 6 th ed.

Child, Family, School, and Community S ocialization and Support 6 th ed.

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Child, Family, School, and Community S ocialization and Support 6 th ed.

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  1. Child, Family, School, and CommunitySocialization and Support 6th ed. Chapter OneEcology of the Child

  2. Ecology, Change, and Children • Ecology is the science of interrelationships between organisms and their environments. • In human development, it involves the consequent biological, psychological, social, and cultural processes that develop over time.

  3. Socialization and Child Development • Socialization is the process by which individuals acquire the • knowledge • skills • character traits that enable them to participate as effective members of groups and society.

  4. Socialization is what… • every parent • every teacher • every friend • every religion • every community DOES

  5. George Mead Language • separates humans from other animals • makes ideas and communication of these ideas possible • makes it possible to replace action with thoughts

  6. A Unique Human Process • Internalization is the process by which externally controlled behavior shifts to • internally • self-controlled behavior

  7. A Reciprocal Dynamic Process Socialization begins and birth and continues throughout life Middle Childhood Adolescence Early Adulthood Middle Adulthood Late Adulthood Early Childhood Infancy/ Toddlerhood Birth Death

  8. Temperament and Socialization

  9. Intentional When adults have certain values that they consistently convey to children Approval for compliance Negative consequences for noncompliance Unintentional Without the deliberate intent to impart knowledge or values Involves human interaction or observation of interaction Socialization

  10. Parents Siblings Grandparents Aunts Uncles Cousins Friends Neighbors Peers Teachers Coaches Characters on television Characters on movies Characters in books How children are socialized

  11. Changes • We assume childhood to be a special period of time when we are cared for, taught, and protected because we are not mature enough to do these things for ourselves • Children today must cope with a world in which both parents work, drugs are readily available, sex is as close as TV or the Internet, and violence is just “around the corner”

  12. Input Interactions in various settings and situations Output Values Attitudes Attributes Motives Self-esteem Self-regulation Morals Gender roles Change and Socialization

  13. Examining Socialization in an Ecological Context In Bronfenbrenner’s Theory there are four basic structures: • Microsystem • Mesosystem • Exosystem • Macrosystem Relationships and interactions take place to form patterns that effect human development.

  14. An Ecological Model of Human Development

  15. Microsystem(micro meaning “small”) The activities and relationships with significant others experienced by children in a particular small setting such as: • Family • School • Peer group • Community

  16. The Family: • is the setting that provides nurturance, affection, and a variety of opportunities. • is the primary socializer of children in that it has the most significant impact on their development

  17. The School: • is the setting in which children formally learn about their society. • is a socializer of children that teaches reading, writing, arithmetic, history, science, and so on.

  18. The Peer Group: • is the setting in which children are generally unsupervised by adults and gain experience in independence. • helps children get a sense of who they are and what they can do.

  19. The Community: • or neighborhood is the main microsystem in which children learn by what they are doing. • determines what real experiences children will have.

  20. The Media: • Television • Movies • Videos • Books • Magazines • Music • Computers

  21. Mesosystem(meso meaning “intermediate”) Interrelationships between two or more of a children’s microsystems: • Home and School • School and Community • Peer Group and School • Etc.

  22. Exosystem(exo meaning “outside”) Settings in which children are not active participants, but that affect them in one of their microsytems: • parents’ job • city council • parental social support networks • etc.

  23. Macrosystem(macro meaning “large”) The society and subculture to which children belong, with particular reference to: • belief systems • lifestyles (lower/middle/upper class) • patterns of social interactions • life changes • etc.

  24. Ethnicity: • is an attribute of membership in a group in which members continue to identify themselves by national origin, culture, race, or religion. Ethnic diversity in the United States makes the understanding of the macrosystem more important.

  25. Low-Context Rationality Practicality Competition Individuality Progress High-Context Intuitiveness Emotionality Cooperation Group identity Tradition Hall’s Classification of Macrosystems

  26. Interaction of Ecological Systems Over Time • The chronosystem involves temporal changes in ecological systems or within individuals as they develop that produce new conditions affecting children’s development.

  27. Successful Socialization of Children • The challenge in today’s society is to rear children to maintain certain: • values • morals • attitudes • behaviors • roles while being adaptable to change, so that they become responsible, caring, competent adults.

  28. Society, Change, and Consequences • With change comes consequences, some affecting many people and others affecting few. • “The future will depend on what we do in the present.” -Mahatma Ghandi

  29. Change and Societal Trends Societal trends that impact children and families include the following: • Biotechnology • Reconceptualization of societal and individual responsibilities • Mobile technology • Globalism/Nationalism • Information Intermediaries

  30. Reconceptualization of Societal and Individual Responsibilities • The challenge is to create caring communities that teach children to: } • think • apply • analyze • synthesize • evaluate information NOT simply regurgitate facts

  31. Change and Consequences The following ecological trends challenge families, schools, and communities’ commitment to children’s needs: • Family size is shrinking • Highly mobile society • mothers in the labor force • homelessness • number of children living w/both parents • children who are abused/neglected

  32. Children in a Toxic Environment • James Garbarino believes that: • violence • drugs • uncaring communities • poverty • abusive families • custody battles are poisoning children’s lives and are responsible for the less-than-optimal well-being of America’s children.

  33. Parents’ Bill of Rights Parents are entitled to: • time for their children • economic security • a profamily electoral and legal system • a supportive external environment • honor and dignity • Hewlett and West (authors of The War Against Parents, 1998)