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UNODC Statistics Mission in Bosnia & Herzegovina

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  1. UNODC Statistics Mission in Bosnia & Herzegovina International Statistics: Advantages and Pitfalls DEVELOPMENT OF MONITORING INSTRUMENTS FOR JUDICIAL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT INSTITUTIONS IN THE WESTERN BALKANS 2009-2011 Phase three – Training With funding from the European Union

  2. Sessions 2-4, Monday • (10.45-11.45) Introduction: Main problems and main sources • (11.45-12.45) Focus on specific data collections • (After lunch 14.45- 16.00) Particular focus on relevance of international statistics in BiH, especially Eurostat data.

  3. Roles played by International and other groups There are 3 main roles played by International Statistics on Crime and Justice: • Guidelines for collecting statistics and training given in their presentation and use • Requests for statistics on crime and justice to be sent to a central authority • Collections of Comparative statistics in various aspects of Crime and Justice I feel that your country’s needs and resources should make use of International statistics but they should not constrain your progress.

  4. Importance of comparative data • Show governments where they need to concentrate efforts • Can give ideas for legal reform • Show population where their country is deficient in criminal justice • Show where statistics infrastructure needs development( including publications) • Can compare resources put into criminal justice

  5. Pitfalls • Countries have different legal systems • They have different statistical systems, with varying priorities and resources • Detailed rules for counting make differences in basic counts of crimes, cases, offenders, migrant flows: UK has high violence figures. • Comparative statistics are only the start of any comparative investigation • Proper studies need more research and legal comparisons

  6. UNODC Statistical initiatives • UNODC is the United Nations Office on Drugs and crime in Vienna, Austria. • UNODC provides trend and policy analyses and publicizes and disseminates data and information on the global drug and crime scene. • Analytical information about the global drug and crime problems enables the international community to identify drug and crime control priorities. • It has a series of statistical initiatives, that can be seen in summary on their web site at http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/index.html

  7. UNODC Standards and recommendations for crime statistics UNODC has published three manuals for improving crime and justice statistics: • A manual for the development of a system of criminal justice statistics • A manual on conducting victimization surveys (together with UNECE) • A manual for the measurement of juvenile justice indicators (together with UNICEF) Each of these is the result of input by expert statisticians from Many countries who have between them many years’ experience of collecting data on crime and justice statistics. Thus they represent the best available knowledge about how to achieve good measure of what is going on in crime and justice area.

  8. UNODC manual for the development of a system of criminal justice statistics This can be downloaded in English ( 161 Pages) or French from http://unstats.un.org/unsd/publication/SeriesF/SeriesF_89E.pdf It contains sections on: • Purposes and requirements of criminal justice statistics • Organizational models • Scope and content • Data collection • Processing statistics • Analyzing, evaluating and disseminating statistics • The role of victimization surveys • International collections It is valuable document for reference and gives many ideas for good practice. However, it does not address the significant problem of how to develop a statistics system, for crime and justice in conditions of financial stringency

  9. UNODC Manual for victimisation surveys The most recent version (231 pages long) can be found in English and French at http://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/Crime-statistics/Manual_on_Victimization_surveys_2009_web.pdf It contains sections on: 1. Introduction to surveys 2. Planning a victimization survey 3. Methodological issues 4. Counting offences and victims 5. Questionnaire design 6. Interviewing 7. Data processing, estimation and analysis 8. Ethical considerations 9. Data dissemination and documentation • Evaluating completed surveys It also covers business surveys and corruption issues

  10. UN Statistics work in specific regions • UNODC runs a CARDS programme to assist countries in transition in SE Europe to improve their statistics on crime and justice • This covers countries such as Kosovo, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Albania, FYROM, & Montenegro • More details can be found on the UNODC web site at http://www.unodc.org/southeasterneurope/en/cards-phase-1.html • First research into what was needed was carried out. Then guidelines were produced., Finally training is being delivered through country visits by statistical experts. • UNODC runs a ‘Data for Africa’ Programme giving statistical training, grants for surveys and guidance

  11. World Bank – GDDS Summary • From 2004 - 2010 the World Bank ran a programme of assistance to English-speaking countries in Africa, called the General Data Dissemination System (GDDS), of which Crime, Justice and Security was a part. • This involved workshops, visits by statistical and IT experts, reports on progress and recommendations for the future. • Its aim was to improve the collection, presentation and use of statistics on crime and justice. • Kenya, Mauritius, Seychelles and Tanzania • A summary of the final conclusions of this exercise can be found on the web site http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SCBEXTERNAL/Resources/REPORT_Justice_Security_Closing_workshop.pdf

  12. GDDS Outputs • GDDS Phase II produced a large number of materials, These included reports on the statistical situation in each of the countries: Kenya, Mauritius, Seychelles and Tanzania, as well as to Namibia, which partly completed the programme. • There are also reports of workshops and other material of use to other countries interested in developing their work on Crime and justice statistics. All these materials can be found on The World bank web site at: http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/DATAST ATISTICS/SCBEXTERNAL/0,,contentMDK:21723005~pa gePK:229544~piPK:229605~theSitePK:239427,00.html

  13. Bilateral arrangements • These are when one country helps another with its statistical development • UK is helping Abu Dhabi, a very rich Gulf State to develop its crime and justice statistics. • Abu Dhabi has modern IT and infrastructure but no tradition of collecting statistics or using them for policy development or operations. • Crime is a feature of an unusual demographic situation (85% of the population are non-citizens) • Project is situated within a more general police training facility.

  14. Requests for crime statistics from international and other agencies The main organisations that request data on crime and justice from time to time are: • UN Survey on Crime Trends, which is conducted every three or four years and is now on its 10th sweep • The Collection of Data for around 40+ countries of Europe by the team producing the European Sourcebook on Crime and Justice Statistics. This is produced every three or four years and is now on its fourth sweep. • The collection of victimization data through the International Crime Victimization Survey. This has been conducted four times an various intervals since 1990. • Eurostat collects data on police recorded crime and prison statistics The next slides look at each of these collections one by one.

  15. United Nations Survey on Crime Trends • Collects data on the incidence of reported crime and the operations of criminal justice systems • An EXCEL questionnaire is sent to each country each time asking for information on crime, police, prosecution, courts, probation and prisons. • Copies of the questionnaire for the 11th sweep of the survey are available at: http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/crime_survey_eleventh.html • The core questionnaire is contained on 11 sheets (7 police, 1 prosecution, 1 courts, 2 prisons) • 4 worksheets are rotated every 3 years on Trafficking, Corruption and Sentencing and there is a sheet on illicit trafficking in cultural property.

  16. European Sourcebook on Crime and Justice Statistics. • The European Sourcebook includes data on crime and justice for 40-45 countries, including the EU and also countries in S and E Europe such as BiH. • It also includes a good deal of explanations about definitions and statistical procedures which clarify the statistics included in the report. • A questionnaire is produced in English/French and sent to a national correspondent in each European countries: usually associated with the justice ministries and not the CSO. • Details of methodology and data collected are at: http://www.europeansourcebook.org/

  17. International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) • The ICVS is a survey of victimization in different countries. It is less formal than many other surveys and tends to be carried out by a loose grouping of experts in survey data collection from mainly North European countries. • However, countries from all over the world have taken part, depending on whether they have resources available. • A questionnaire is designed that can be used by all states participating in the survey: methodologies are also prescribed, although not all countries can keep to the recommended methodology exactly • Countries are asked to survey a relatively small number of potential victims, perhaps 1,000+ to ask their experience of crime over the last 12 months.

  18. ICVS (Continued) Details of the most recent survey, which was the fifth sweep of the survey, can be found at http://english.wodc.nl/onderzoeksdatabase/icvs-2005-survey.aspx?cp=45&cs=6796 The following victimisation is covered: • Any common crime • Vehicle related crimes • Burglary and other theft • Contact crimes • Non-conventional crimes Trends and Comparisons with recorded crime are also covered as are methodological issues. Information is also published on • Fear of crime • Security precautions • Public attitudes to law enforcement

  19. EuroStat Data collection • Data collected from statistical experts nominated by the Directors of Social Statistics (mainly from National Statistical Offices) Coverage • EU-27: • Candidates: Potential Candidates: • AL, BiH, ME, RS, XZ • EFTA/EEA: IS, LI, NO, CH • Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Russian • Federation, USA, South Africa

  20. Details of collection • Data requested from national experts annually in November • Data collected for previous calendar year • Deadline for returns - 1 month • Data available within 2 months of collection • Report published 2 month after deadline

  21. EuroStat definitions of crime types • Total crime: Offences against the penal code or criminal code. Less serious crimes (misdemeanours) are generally excluded. • Homicide: Intentional killing of a person, including murder, manslaughter, euthanasia and infanticide. Causing death by dangerous driving is excluded, as are abortion and help with suicide. Attempted (uncompleted) homicide is also excluded. Unlike other offences, the counting unit for homicide is normally the victim. • Violent crime/Assault: Violence against the person (such as physical assault), robbery (stealing by force or by threat of force), and sexual offences (including rape and sexual assault). • Robbery: Stealing from a person with force or threat of force, including muggings (bag snatching) and theft with violence. Pickpocketing, extortion and blackmailing are generally not included.

  22. EuroStat definitions of crime types II • Burglary Gaining access to a dwelling by the use of force to steal goods. • Motor vehicle theft: Includes all land vehicles with an engine that run on the road which are used to carry people (including cars, motor cycles, buses, lorries, construction and agricultural vehicles) • Drug Trafficking: Illegal possession, cultivation, production, supplying, transportation, importing, exporting, financing etc. of drug operations not solely in connection with personal use.

  23. Other data collected by Eurostat • Police numbers: All ranks of police officers including criminal police, traffic police, border police, gendarmerie, uniformed police, city guard, municipal police. Do not include civilian staff, customs officers, tax, military and secret service police, part-time officers, special duty police reserves, cadets, and court police. • Prison Numbers: Total number of adult and juvenile prisoners (including pre-trial detainees) at 1 September. Including offenders held in Prison Administration facilities, other facilities, juvenile offenders' institutions, drug addicts' institutions and psychiatric or other hospitals. Excluding non-criminal prisoners held for administrative purposes (for example, people held pending investigation into their immigration status).

  24. Collections of Internationally comparable statistics A constant series of questions always being asked is how an individual country compares with others in the area of crime and justice: • Is homicide higher? • How many robberies were there ? • How many rapes were there? • What is the extent of corruption? • Are there enough police in a particular country? • How many people are in prison? The next few slides summarize data that is routinely available for the use of governments, businessmen and international organisations.

  25. World Prison Brief The World Prison Brief is an initiative of an academic institution, The International Centre for Prison Studies of the University of London, UK. • The material is found at the World Prison Brief web site: http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/law/research/icps/worldbrief/ • Information is obtained on the main prison indicators from contacts, mainly in the prison service of the individual countries. • The data are presented in a straightforward way so that they are easily readable. The typical output for an individual country can be found (for Tanzania) at http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/law/research/icps/worldbrief/wpb_country.php?country=48 • The material has a wide coverage with almost every country in the world responding to the questions.

  26. UN Crime Trends Survey • The collection of data for this survey was mentioned in Slides 16 and 17. Material is published in EXCEL format for each sweep of the survey on: • http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/crimedata.html • Not all countries respond to the questionnaire so the results are sometimes selective. However, for those countries that do respond data are easily available and countries that have not responded are identified. • Occasional research reports in a more readable format are produced: eg see the Global Report on Crime and Justice at: • http://www.uncjin.org/Special/GlobalReport.html

  27. UNODC publications There are four specific publications series on statistics and related issues from the UNODC: • The series of victimization surveys that have been conducted for certain African countries. These can be downloaded free from: http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/Data-for-Africa-publications.html • Specific studies of Drugs and crime which can be downloaded free from http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/Studies-on-Drugs-and-Crime.html?ref=menuside • A comprehensive data base of data on drug seizures in all reporting countries that can be downloaded free from: http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/Research-Database.html?ref=menuside • Studies of global crime issues: eg recent report on global organised crime that can be downloaded free from: http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/2010/June/international-criminal-markets-have-become-major-centres-of-power-unodc-report-shows.html?ref=fs0

  28. Eurostat publications • An annual bulletin on European crime statistics is at: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-SF-08-019/EN/KS-SF-08-019-EN.PDF

  29. Homicide data for SE European countries

  30. UNODC Statistics Mission in Bosnia & Herzegovina International Statistics: Advantages and Pitfalls DEVELOPMENT OF MONITORING INSTRUMENTS FOR JUDICIAL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT INSTITUTIONS IN THE WESTERN BALKANS 2009-2011 Phase three – Training With funding from the European Union