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Philip and Elizabeth

Philip and Elizabeth

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Philip and Elizabeth

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  1. Philip and Elizabeth The Revolt of the Netherlands and the Spanish Armada

  2. The goals: Know Philip II’s relationship with Charles V, Mary Tudor and Elizabeth Tudor Describe the Escorial Palace Know the reasons behind the revolt in the Netherlands Did the Spanish Armada succeed in its goal to invade England, Why or why not?

  3. Philip II was the son of Charles V.His father split the Holy Roman Empire between Philip and his uncle.

  4. Philip was married to Henry VIII’s daughter, Mary. Together, they set about making England Catholic again.

  5. Philip was not attracted to Mary, but Mary was in love with him

  6. During Mary’s five year reign, hundreds of Protestants were burned at the stake, even children younger than ten

  7. Mary will go down in history as “Bloody Mary”

  8. Philip had to return to Spain to watch over his dominions. Mary died soon afterwards.

  9. Elizabeth inherits the throne

  10. Elizabeth’s priority was to bring peace and prosperity to her people and end the great religious divisions

  11. In the beginning, Philip tried to “be diplomatic” with Elizabeth and England

  12. But, over time, Philip resented Elizabeth’s rule—and Philip himself became leader of the Counter-Reformation

  13. At the same time, Spain entered its Golden Age—1550-1650, a time of great cultural achievement

  14. Philip lost numerous wives to disease and childbirth.

  15. His son, Don Carlos, was held captive when he revolted against his father. He died in captivity.

  16. Philip built a royal residence. It was called the Escorial—and was designed on a “grill” shape, representing the way that St. Lawrence was killed.

  17. It was forbidding, monastic, and became a symbol of austere Catholicism

  18. Philip faced a revolt in the Netherlands, the lands he inherited from his father.

  19. The Netherlands comprised today’s Netherlands and Belgium The Netherlands is sometimes called Holland after its largest province.

  20. The Southern Provinces were busy commercial centers. Their center was Antwerp The Northern Provinces had developed a loose federation

  21. There were 17 provinces altogether

  22. As France began to clamp down its protestant population—the Calvinists headed for the Netherlands for protection

  23. These Protestants brought with them the Calvinist attitude that the state did not have supreme allegiance of its people • A league of 200 nobles was formed to stop Spanish Influence—and prevent an inquisition in their country

  24. An inquisition in the Netherlands would be disastrous—as, unlike Spain, there is a growing Protestant Population

  25. Philip’s representatives refuse to listen. The inquisition begins. As a result. . .The Dutch revolt!

  26. Catholic churches are pillaged and destroyed as people revolted against the Spanish domination

  27. Philip sends in the Duke of Alva with select Spanish Troops into the Southern Netherlands

  28. Alva’s Council of Troubles sentences thousands to death. He punishes the nobles.

  29. These measures only unite the people against a common enemy: Philip and Spain

  30. William of Orange, the royal house of Holland, emerges as a leader

  31. William invited the Protestant countries to help harass the Spanish He authorized ships to harass or pirate Spanish ships, to raid Spanish occupied ports. By 1576 opposition to the Spanish superseded the differences between the provinces

  32. England’s role in the revolt of the Netherlands

  33. Elizabeth’s reign strengthened. • But she did not marry. She did not name a direct heir until she was near death in 1603.

  34. Elizabeth had a cousin, Mary Stuart, who inherited the throne of Scotland. She was young and foolish. She grew up in France.

  35. After returning to Scotland, she married her first cousin and had a baby boy. This boy would eventually become James I of England and Scotland

  36. Mary made many mistakes in her brief reign. Her husband was murdered, and she married his suspected murder.

  37. The Scottish Protestants, led by John Knox, were dismayed by Mary’s Catholicism and her instability. They wanted her out of the kingdom.

  38. Eventually, Mary Queen of Scots fled to England. Baby James remained in Scotland to be raised a Protestant. He would be raised to be Protestant.

  39. Mary Queen of Scots remained under house arrest in England for 19 years

  40. But while she lived, she remained a rallying point for all English Catholics

  41. Don Juan, half brother of Philip II, hatched a plan to invade England and put Mary on the throne as an Catholic ruler

  42. Elizabeth and quietly aided the Netherlands in past years, but now she signs an alliance with the Netherlands

  43. English and Dutch raiders continue to pirate and pillage the rich Spanish Treasure ships

  44. William the Silent is assassinated by agents of Philip II in 1584.

  45. Don Juan dies, and now the Duke of Parma comes to the Netherlands • Elizabeth continues to face a few internal threats, including the Ridolfi plot (which was in the movie Elizabeth). All of these plots have the goal of returning the Catholic faith to the throne of England

  46. The Duke of Parma splits the 17 provinces. The southern provinces agree to support the Spanish These Southern Provinces become the Spanish Netherlands—which in time will become the Austrian Netherlands, which in time becomes today’s BELGUIM