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Middle Ages: The Roman Catholic Church PowerPoint Presentation
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Middle Ages: The Roman Catholic Church

Middle Ages: The Roman Catholic Church

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Middle Ages: The Roman Catholic Church

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  1. Middle Ages: The Roman Catholic Church

  2. Warm - Up • 1. HowwastheRomanCatholicChurch a powerfulforceduringtheMiddleAges? • 2. Analyzethepower of theChurchwithfeudalism.

  3. Objective Students will be able to evaluate the role of the Roman Catholic Church in Medieval Europe.

  4. The Roman Catholic Church • 1. When Europe divided into small independent feudal states, the Roman Catholic Church became the single unifying force on the continent. • 2. The Catholic Church played a powerful role in nearly everyone’s social and personal life. • 3. Most Europeans were baptized, married, and buried by Catholic priests.

  5. Political Structure • Pope – father or leader of the Church • Cardinal – advisors to the Pope, controlled Archbishops, and chose the Pope from the Cardinals • Archbishop – controlled archdiocese ( a large district or areas of land) and bishops • Bishop - controlled “diocese” (district of land) in larger cities or provinces made of many parishes (communities) • Priests – controlled local church • Friars – traveling priest • Monks – men who dedicated their lives to God living in a secluded community

  6. Local Churches • 1. Throughout Western Europe in medieval times, each community was centered around a church. • 2. The church offered religious services, established orphanages, and helped care for the poor, sick, and elderly. • 3. They also hosted feasts, festivals, and other celebrations.

  7. Cathedrals • 1. As communities grew, their members often donated money and labor to build new and larger churches. • 2. These cathedrals were built to honor God. • 3. Since most people could not read and understand Latin, the language of the Church– the shape and pictures of cathedrals taught people religion.

  8. Monks • 1. Monks were men who devoted their time to praying, studying, and copying and decorating holy books by hand, called Illuminated Manuscripts. • 2. They also preserved the works of the ancient Greeks and Romans. • 3. The Church founded Europe’s first universities. • 4. Monks lived in communities called monasteries – they became important centers of learning in medieval society.

  9. Nuns • 1. Women who served the Church were called nuns. • 2. In the Middle Ages, it was common for a woman to become a nun after her husband died. • 3. Nuns prayed, sewed, taught young girls, cared for the poor, and also copied and decorated books. • 4. They lived in secluded communities called convents.

  10. Great Political Power • The church also held great political power. • If a nobleman refused to obey the commands of the Church, the pope might punish him with excommunication, which kept him from Church activities. • All of the churches on his land would be closed, and neither he nor his family, nor anyone within his territory could be baptized, married, or buried with the Church’s blessing.

  11. The Great Schism (Split) 1054 - Bishop of Constantinople rejected the Pope’s power. Both men excommunicated each other and caused The church split into two branches: Roman Catholic in the west and Orthodox in the east.

  12. The Inquisition and Heretics • The inquisition was a court set up by the Roman Catholic Church to investigate heresy and punish heretics • Heresy was a serious crime of the Middle Ages in which a person held beliefs that the Church felt were wrong. • Heretics, people guilty of heresy, were excommunicated, tortured, or killed.

  13. Religious Persecution • Jewish communities lived under discrimination and persecution in Europe. • They were forbidden to own land. • They could work only in certain professions, such as banking. • Christians often blamed Jews when disease or natural disasters struck. • Yet Jewish communities remained intact and preserved their traditions. • Scholars continued to make contributions to learning for all Europeans.

  14. Reconquista • Since the 700’s A.D. Moors ruled much of Spain. • Christian leaders began a gradual reconquista, or reconquering of the Iberian Peninsula. • Jews and Muslims were forced to convert to Christianity, leave, or die. • By the 1400’s A.D., most of Spain became unified and ruled under Christian leaders.

  15. The Crusades – “God Wills It!” • 1. In 1095 A.D., Pope Urban II called for a crusade, or a military expedition, to reclaim Christian control of the Holy Land from Muslim Turks. • 2. The empire of the Turks included Palestine, part of the Holy Land, where Christ was born.

  16. Outcomes of the Crusades • 1. Several crusades between 1096 and 1272 failed to win the Holy Land. • 2. They succeeded in: re-opening the old trade routes, decreasing lords power and their fighting, increased kings power, making better boats and maps, and re-introduced the Greek and Roman knowledge.