Review for Final Exam Max Cameron Poli 332 Winter 2010
Time and Place • SWNG 221 • April 23, 2010 • 8:30 am - 10:30 am
Key Themes in this Course • Latin America’s diversity and complexity • A mirror back on our own reality (“what knows he of England who only England knows?” - Kipling) • Latin American countries as “cases of” other things that interest political scientists
Key Themes • The state of democracy • Characterizing democratic regimes • Including delegative democracy, representative democracy, polyarchy, constitutional and citizens’ democracy • Understanding their diversity • Including well institutionalized representative systems and systems that are more fragmented and where there is a crisis of representation; the rise of participatory democracy • The quality of democracy • Assessed along different dimensions
Key Themes • Indigenous politics • The impact of the international system • Shifts to the left • Poverty, inequality and violence • The role of culture and opinion
Format • 2 hours • 2 parts • 20 objective questions (worth 1/3rd grade) • 2 essays, choice of questions (each essay worth 1/3rd grade, for total of 2/3rds)
Short Answer Study Questions • Give two explanations for imperialism • How many US interventions were there in Latin America between 1898-1934? • What was the Truman doctrine? • Who did FDR call “our S.O.B.?” • What key principles were enshrined in the OAS Charter? • What did containment of communism mean in Latin America? • What country proposed the Inter-American Democratic Charter? • Where was the proposal made? Where was the Charter signed? • What was Resolution 1080? The Santiago Commitment? • What is the name of the national confederation of indigenous groups in Ecuador? • Define social movements • What is dependency? • What is the “dependency syndrome.” Give an example. • Define political culture. • Why is satisfaction with democracy low in Chile?
What is the “Democratic Charter’s Catch 22”? • Give an example of something that would count as an unconstitutional interruption or alteration of the democratic order? • Who replaced Zelaya as president of Honduras following the coup in 2009? • What is the name of the coalition that governed Chile until the last election year? Who is the current president? • What Bolivian president was toppled by popular mobilizations in 2003? • What is an ethnic party? • Describe are four different forms of political engagement using the two variables: institutional/noninstitutional and influence/power? • Name three countries with influential indigenous movements • What is ILO Convention 169? • How many ethnic groups are there in Bolivia? • What is Katarismo? • With what percent of the vote was Morales elected in 2005? In 2009? • Define presidentialism • Define autogolpe • Define polyarchy, or illiberal democracy, or delegative democracy • Define constitutional democracy, or citizens’ democracy
From a democratic perspective, what advantages did Argentina enjoy in the 20th century? What about Chile? • Why is the BA state considered “anti-political”? • What was Frondizi’s impossible game? • Who are the piqueteros? • Who is the president of Argentina? • Define Coronelismo • Who led the October 1930 coup in Brazil? What was the new corporatist regime called? • What was the Directas ja campaign for? • What is Bolsa Familia? • What is the key difference in the status of labor in Chile and Argentina in the early part of the 20th century? • Name three challenges Chile faced in its 20th century democratic politics? • Give the percentage of the vote won by Allende in 1970? • Define a binomial electoral system.
Who waged a prolonged peoples war in Peru? • Give an example of a constitutional caudillo • Who is Ollanta Humala? • Why does Colombia score low on measures of electoral democracy? • Why does Venezuela also score low on the same measures? • What country has the largest number of internally displaced people in Latin America? • What was the Platt Amendment? • What two Central American countries signed Peace Accords in the 1990s? • Is Central America less violent today than in the period of civil war? • Who was Augusto Sandino? • How did Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez respond to a peasant rebellion in the 1930s? • What event occurred in 1944 to change Guatemala’s history? And in 1954? • Who was Arbenz? Why did the US overthrow him? • Who said Latin America has no “usable history”? • What caused the crisis of oligarchic states? • What were three or four of the main problems with ISI? • What is the ejido? • What three crises brought down the PRI?
What did Castro do in 1953 that won him wide notoriety? • What event the following year convinced Castro, Che and others young radicals that power could not be won through elections? • What were some of the main problems created by Communism in Cuba? • The US invaded Cuba to prevent Castro from acquiring nuclear weapons. True or false? • What was the “Special Period”? • What event in 1972 led to the decline of the Somoza dictatorship? • What leader of the 1932 rebellion in El Salvador is memorialized in the name of a recently elected party? • What country in Central America has no army? • Which has the highest level of human development? Which is richest? • What Central American president copied Fujimori’s autogolpe? • How many greater is the GDP per capita of the average person in the United States compared with the average Central American? • How has Morales threatened judicial independence in Bolivia? • What party was launched by CONAIE in the 1990s?
Who led the revolt in Ecuador in 2000 that brought down President Mahuad? • What policies by Mahuad provoked the revolt? • Why did President Gutierrez disappoint the indigenous movement? • What do people mean by the “Brazilian economic miracle”? • What are the “two canons of representation”? • Who was Marcos Perez Jimenez? • What was the Caracazo? • What does MVR stand for? • What Venezuelan leader was close to the Kennedy administration? • What did the Venezuelan referendum of 2009 change? • Give examples of direct participation • Now give concrete examples in specific countries • What three countries in the Andes have changed their constitutions since 1999? • What is the separation of powers? • What is the Lista Russian? • What is the “parapolitica scandal” about?
Sample Essay Questions • Pacts between outgoing authoritarians and incoming civilians facilitated the process of transitions to democracy in the 1970s and 1980s, and this tied the hands of succeeding democratic governments. Is this changing as a result of the “left turns” we observe in Latin America in the current decade? • Does indigenous mobilization help consolidate or destabilize democracy? • Why is presidential re-election a big issue in Latin America today? Should there be term limits? • What values does democracy have unless it improves the quality of life for everyone? Discuss with reference to specific cases. • What is political culture? What aspects of Latin American politics does it explain? Assess the view that “culture does not matter”. • Are any countries in Latin America today in violation of the Inter-American Democratic Charter? Which? Explain your assessment. • Democracy must be “made safe” in order to endure. Do you agree? What does Latin America’s recent history tell us? Use specific examples. • After decades of war, electoral democracy has become the norm in Central America. How has this come about?
Readings from Smith, ed. Latin American Democratic Transformations • Smith and Ziegler - illiberal democracy • Foweraker and Krznaric - rule of law • Madrid and Zamosc - indigenous politics • Levitsky and Cameron - Peru • Carey - presidential re-election
Know Three Countries Well • From Skidmore, Smith and Green, focus on knowing at least three countries well: • Mexico (ch 3) • Central America (ch 4) • Andes (ch 6 plus Cameron, ADRN) • Venezuela (ch 8) • Argentina (ch 9) • Chile (ch 10) • Brazil (ch 11)
From Smith, Democracy in Latin America • Focus on Part III: the state, equality, rights and freedoms, the quality of democracy, illiberal democracy.