Chapter 21 – Progressives & Reformers Lesson 3 Objectives What Progressive reforms did Theodor Roosevelt support? What was Woodrow Wilson’s New Freedom program? How was big business regulated during the Progressive Era?
A Reforming President • William McKinley chooses Theodore Roosevelt as his running mate for the 1900 Presidential Election. • McKinley is assassinated in 1901, TR becomes the nation’s youngest president.
Teddy Roosevelt • Old, wealthy NY family. • Suffered from asthma & was sick a lot • Lifted weights, ran, & boxed • Entered politics after college. • Supported progressive goals. • Hated corruption and felt gov. should protect the public interest.
“goo-goo” • Age 26, NY State Legislature • 1884, wife & mother died the same day. • Quit politics & moved to ND to work on cattle ranch. • Two years later, returned to East and politics. • Served on the Civil Service Commission. • Head of NYC Police Department • Asst. Secretary of Navy • 1898 – Governor of NY
TR Takes on the Trusts • Believed big business was to stay. • Good trusts were left alone. • Bad trusts cheated the public and took advantage of workers. • Northern Securities Case • First company TR went after. • Headed by JP Morgan. • 1904 – Supreme Court agreed that N. Securities had violated the Sherman Antitrust Act by limiting trade. • Trust had to break up • Went after Standard Oil and American Tobacco Co. • Both trusts were broken up.
Trustbuster! • Trustbuster – wants to destroy all trusts. • 1902 – Pennsylvania Coal Miners • Strike for better pay & shorter workday. • Mine owners refused to negotiate. • Roosevelt threatened to send troops in to run the mines.
Promise of a Square Deal • Square deal – all should have an equal opportunity to succeed. • Teddy was re-elected in 1904.
Regulating railroads & Protecting consumers • Elkins Act – outlawed rebates. • Hepburn Act – gave the ICC greater power, including the right to set rates. • Meat Inspection Act – forced packers to open their doors to more inspectors. • Pure Food & Drug Act – required food and drug makers to list all ingredients on their packaging, ended false ads, and banned impure ingredients. • Conservation – protection of natural resources • Set aside a lot of land for national parks.
Taft & the Reformers • 1908 – Teddy supported William Howard Taft, who was easily elected. • Teddy goes to Africa. • Taft • Quiet & cautious • Supported Progressive causes • Odds with progressives • Teddy runs against Taft in 1912. • Progressive Party – bullmoose mascot • Democrats choose Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson • Progressive • Born in South • President of Princeton Univ. • Gov. of New Jersey • Won 1912 election
Pres. Woodrow Wilson • New Freedom – a policy to restore competition in the American economy. • Federal Reserve Act – regulate banking • Federal Trade Commission – had power to investigate companies and order them to stop using unfair business practices. • Clayton Antitrust Act – banned competition limitations & barred antitrust laws from being used against labor unions.