Cultural Norms The only time we can use the term “normal” to explain you!!!!!
What is culture? • Definition : a collection of thoughts, actions, beliefs and ideals, shared amongst a group of people. • Culture includes more than ethnic groups • religion, school, community, country, music/arts, hobbies, etc. • Typically those who share culture will have equal stock in creating and following cultural guidelines. • These guidelines are called Cultural Norms
Cultural Norms • Definitions – the standards or “rules” a specific culture sets for its “in-group” • Though we mentioned this before, it is important to understand these Norms extend past stereotypes, and likes/dislikes of a group. • These Norms also include • laws, politics, commerce, “pecking order”,
Cultural Dimensions • Definition: How a culture defines or “perceives” major aspects of daily life, that influence how a person will act. Much bigger than the social identity roles we have discussed. • Individualism / collectivism – how members will define themselves within or apart from other members of their culture. • Individualism – emphasis is placed on the member choosing their own affiliations within the culture. • Collectivism – emphasis is placed on the member acting as part or on behalf of a predestined group. Ex. Family, religion, school.
Cultural Dimensions • Individualism / collectivism cont. • What happens as a culture dimensions change? • Past slogans – “God, Country, Family, Self” & “Ask not what your country can do for you…….” • Modern Day – “Army of One”, “You are the author of your own life”
Cultural Dimensions • Masculinity / Femininity • Masculinity – typically a culture that focuses on competition, assertiveness, ambition, and accumulation of possession. • Femininity – typically a culture that focuses on relationships, and quality of life. • Can also include the male and female roles in the culture group, but that is more of a social identity realm.
-emicvs -etic Cultural Norms • -emic Cultural Norms – are defined as norms specific within a given cultural group • -etic Cultural Norms – are defined as norms that often are universal across cultures. • The Focus deals more with how we perceive norms based on cultural dimensions • For Example • Self Reliance
-emic vs. -etic • Self Reliance • Individualism dimension – perceived as ones ability to pursue one’s own goals. This includes the perception that they are in competition with others • Collectivism dimension – perceived as one’s ability to not be a burden on others. This provides no competition component “what can I do to stay out of others way”
-emic vs. –etic: Semantic Memory • Emic: Western children and adults exhibit greater abilities to recall specific past events and event-specific details than their Asian counterparts. • Etic: Differences a result of methodological artifacts or the true work of ‘culture’ difference on event-specific details?
-emic vs. –etic: Rwandan genocide • Emic: Hutus believed that the Tutsis were to blame for economic hardship and unofficial caste structure that held them (Hutus) back, based on genetic markers (tall, slender noses). • Etic: The colonial influences of Germany and Belgium created divide and superiority between Hutus and Tutsis based on genetic marker similarity to Europeans.
Imposed -etic • -etic research is meant to be as objective as possible. This is invalidated when we become subjective in our discussion. • Imposed -etics when a researcher applies their own “-emic” cultural understanding when explaining another’s culture. • This of course is an oxymoron, and will invalidate your conclusions.