manure 101 nutrient management and the dairy industry n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Manure 101: Nutrient Management and the Dairy Industry. PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Manure 101: Nutrient Management and the Dairy Industry.

play fullscreen
1 / 47

Manure 101: Nutrient Management and the Dairy Industry.

283 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Manure 101: Nutrient Management and the Dairy Industry.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Manure 101:Nutrient Management and the Dairy Industry. Kevin Erb UW-Extension NPM Program University of Wisconsin - Extension UW-Madison College of Agricultural & Life Sciences

  2. Farmer View of Site-Specific Future Manure Regulations

  3. What is Nutrient Management?Common Sense. • Combine on-farm nutrient sources, with commercial fertilizer, to meet crop need. On-farm nutrient sources (manure) Soil reserves Commercial fertilizer Minimize nutrient losses

  4. Environmental Aspectsof Manure • Nutrients • Nitrogen • Phosphorus • Potassium • Bacteria/Pathogens • BOD

  5. Nitrogen • Groundwater Concerns • EPA Standard: 10 ppm • Blue Baby Syndrome • Hypoxia

  6. Hypoxia

  7. Phosphorus • Surface Water Concern • Algae Growth

  8. Environmentalist’s view of how farmersmanage manure.

  9. Phosphorus • Movement • Soil attached is most common route • 1 lb P = 500 lb algae • One ton soil eroded = 1 ton algae in water • Stop Erosion, Solve Big Part of the Problem • National Buffer Initiative (USA)

  10. Potassium • Dairy Animal Health Concern • Too Much in Ration: Ketosis / Milk Fever

  11. Bacteria • E. Coli • Up to 6 month + viable in soil • Does not survive as well on surface • Enters streams when manure runs off

  12. Antibiotics • Animals DO NOT break them down. • Excreted intact with the urine • Low level resistance concerns

  13. Biochemical Oxygen Demand * A measure of how much oxygen is removed from a water body by the bacteria breaking down organic materials. (BOD) Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) * Oxygen required to break down chemical compounds in water body.

  14. Manure Basics • What is Manure? • Urine, feces • Waste feed • Parlor water • Gray water (sinks, etc)

  15. Manure Basics • How Much Manure Does a cow produce in a day? A week? A Month? A Year?

  16. The Influence Of Milk Production On Daily Manure Production

  17. How Much Manure? • Typical Dairy Cow: • 148 lbs/day (18 gal) • 1036 lbs/week (124 gal) • 4440 lbs/month (531 gal) • 54020 lbs/year (6460 gal) • Does not include youngstock, other wastes

  18. Rule of Thumb #1 • One cow plus replacement plus wastewater = 10,000 gal/year

  19. What is in manure? • Nutrients • Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium • Micro nutrients (Sulfur, Boron, etc) • Whatever the cow eats that does not become milk or meat becomes manure. • If it’s in the feed, it’s in the manure.

  20. Dairy Diet and Runoff • Manure from 2 rations applied • 1.28 and 0.48% P (rec is 0.34-0.38) • Runoff was 4x higher for high P diet • Same lbs P applied • Runoff was 10x higher when manure rates were the same. • Ebeling et al, 2001

  21. Dairy Diet Impacts • Ave P in dairy ration is 0.47% • Gunderson, Keuning & Erb, 2001 • NRC Recommendation is 0.32-0.38% P • Higher rates are due to belief that lower P reduces reproductive efficiency.

  22. The Manure Paradox Crops use N:P:K in a 3:1:2 ratio Dairy manure is a 1:1:2 ratio (available) Meet the crop’s N need = excess P Meet the crop’s P need = buy N fert

  23. _____________________________________ N P2O5 K2O (surface/incorporated) ______________________ Solid (lb/ton) 3 / 4 3 8 Liquid (lb/1,000 gal) 8 / 10 8 21 _____________________________________ Manure Nutrient Content - Dairy -

  24. N P2O5 K2O - - - - - - - - - lb/a/yr - - - - - - - - Corn (160 bu/a) 160* 60 40 Corn silage (23 ton/a) 225 90 170 Soybean (40 bu/a) 115 35 40 Alfalfa (5 ton/a) 250 65 250 Reed canarygrass 250 125 325 (5 ton/a) Crop Nutrient Removal *recommended application rate. Note that these numbers vary by state/prov.

  25. Yield GoalSoil Test Level bu/a Low Optimum High Ex.High - - - - - - - - - - - - - - lb/acre - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 111-130 65 45 25 0 131-150 75 55 25 0 151-170 80 60 30 0 Example of P2O5 Recommendations for Corn

  26. Corn Nutrient Need vs. Manure Nutrient Supply Following a Nitrogen Strategy lb/acre

  27. Manure Application Rates Nitrogen Strategy • Maximum rates • P and K in excess of crop need • Efficient with time and labor • Preferred when land is limited

  28. Corn Nutrient Need vs. Manure Nutrient SupplyFollowing a Phosphorus Strategy lb/acre

  29. Manure Application Rates Phosphorus Strategy • Low rates • Need supplemental nitrogen • Increased time and labor • Need adequate acreage

  30. Manure Nitrogen ContentTotal vs. AvailableSolid Manure lb N/ton

  31. Soil Test P Changes Slowly • Soil buffering capacity • The amount of fertilizer needed to change the soil test level by 1 ppm • 18 lbs P2O5/acre = 1 ppm change in soil P • Time is required to either lower or raise soil test levels.

  32. Soil Test P Changes Slowly- Example - • Soil test P = 75 ppm (EH) • Track draw-down of P over a CCOHHH rotation.

  33. Soil Test P Changes Slowly- Example - • Soil test P = 75 ppm (EH) • Track draw-down of P over a CCOHHH rotation. • Corn @150 bu/a removes 55 lb P2O5/a/yr • Oats @ 100 bu/a removes 25 lb P2O5/a/yr • Alfalfa @ 5 tons/a removes 65 lb P2O5/a/yr • Removal of P2O5 over rotation = 330 lbs P2O5

  34. Soil Test P Changes Slowly- Example - • Soil test P = 75 ppm (EH) • Track drawdown of P over a CCOHHH rotation. • Removal of P2O5 over rotation = 330 lbs P2O5 Change in soil test P = 330 lb P2O5/18 = 18 ppm P

  35. Soil Test P Changes Slowly- Example - • Soil test P = 75 ppm (EH) • Track drawdown of P over a CCOHHH rotation. • Removal of P2O5 over rotation = 330 lbs P2O5 • Change in soil test P = 330 lb P2O5/18 = 18 ppm P Soil test P = 57 ppm (EH) after the 6-year rotation. (75 ppm P - 18 ppm P = 57 ppm P)

  36. Regulations • 1972 Clean Water Act • Point vs. Non-Point Sources • Problem Not Yet Solved.

  37. Regulatory Future • Each Providence, State, County, Township may be different. • Future • Lower AU (animal unit) threshold for permit • More phosphorus emphasis • Future emphasis on bacterial / antibiotics / odor concerns • Short term focus will be on P based nutrient management

  38. Economics(Nitrogen @ $0.20/lb) • 100 Cow Dairy • Alfalfa N = $ 1,200 • (50 acres/yr @ 120 lbs N/a) • Manure N = $ 1,320 • (22 tons/cow/year @ 3 lbs N/ton) • Total On-Farm N = $ 2,520

  39. 100 Cow Dairy Manure P2O5 = $ 1,650 (22 tons/cow/year @ 3 lbs P2O5/ton) Manure K2O = $ 2,288 (22 tons/cow/year @ 8 lbs K2O/ton) Total Manure P205 & K2O = $ 3,938 Economics(P2O5 @ $0.25/lb; K2O @ $0.13/lb)

  40. If You Are Going To Use Manure as a Fertilizer… Treat It Like A Fertilizer!

  41. Soil Test Phosphorus Variability from a Wisconsin Dairy Farm

  42. Public Relations • Manure Handling and Application • Odor control • Real or perceived excessive rates • Road spillage • Traffic hazards & delays • Spreading near water • Cattle in water

  43. Challenges of the Future: • Dairy Trends. • Management: More cows, fewer farms. • Realization by farmers that manure management requires a cash investment. • Manure’s Internet IPO: Lots of ideas now, lots of broken ideas coming in a few years. Easiest to use / most farm-profitable techniques will remain.

  44. Opportunities of the Future: • Every farm will have a nutrient management plan. • Nitrogen – Phosphorus Pendulum • Affiliated and independent consultants • Site-specific research • Between 1992 and 2001, UWGB was the lead institution for mass balance research.

  45. Farmers are searching for answers. Manure is no longer considered the last item after everything else is done.

  46. kevin.erb@ces.uwex.edu