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MFGT 290 MFGT Certification Class

MFGT 290 MFGT Certification Class

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MFGT 290 MFGT Certification Class

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  1. MFGT 290MFGT Certification Class Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 33 Engineering Drawing, GD&T, Computer Aided Design Product Design Tools, Lean Production Professor Joe Greene CSU, CHICO MFGT 290

  2. Chap 16: Engineering Drawing • Drawing Standards • Projection Systems • Auxiliary and Section Views • Dimensioning • Tolerancing • Fits • Tolerances for 100% Interchaneability • Surface Finish Symbols • Review Questions

  3. Introduction • Standards are necessary in CAD design since designs are typically complex. • Designers create drawings for others to make.. • Engineering and Manufacturing needs common symbols, fonts, dimensions, call outs, section views to reduce cost of reading drawings and producing parts from them. • American • ANSI standard • ASME standard • European • ISO standard

  4. Introduction • History • Design standards are thought to have been used in ancient Egypt for the pyramids. • Drafting Standards started in England in the 1940s • Stanley Parker • English worker in a torpedo factory in Scotland, devised a method of specifying cylindrical tolerance zones surrounding an absolute location from what was previously specified as rectangular plus/minus tolerances. This became true position. • 1935: American Standards Association (ASA) published first standard for engineering drawings. • Only 20 pages in length with 5 pages devoted to dimensioning. • 1940: SAE Draftsman handbook • Chevrolet division at GM detailed standards for automotive draftsmen. • 1945: US Army publication of ordinance manual specified dimensioning and tolerance for the US Army. • 1949: Military Standard 8 was published to specify dimensioning and tolerancing standards for US Army. • Little coordination between ASA, SAE and Military

  5. Introduction • History • 1957: American Standards Association • Approved first American standard devoted to dimensioning and tolerancing. • Britain and Canada cooperated. • 1966: First unified standard published by American National Standards Institute (ANSI) • Standard ANSI 14.1 to 14.5 • Updated in 1973 and 1982 • 1994 and 1995 updated and published by the ASME • 95% in agreement with ISO global standards. • ISO is the European standards (metric)

  6. ANSI Y14 Design Drafting Standards • Standard • Establishes a series of recommended drawing sizes and basic format for engineering drawing in the United States. • Provides common standards to aid in the interchange of drawings between companies, government, and other users. • Started in 1975 in Detroit, MI, and revised every 5 years or so. • 1994 and 1995 updated and published by the ASME • ANSI Y14.1 Drawing Sheet Size and Format • ANSI Y14.2 Line Conventions and Lettering • ANSI Y14.3 Multi and Sectional View Drawings • ANSI Y14.4 American Drafting Standards Manual • ANSI Y14.5 Dimensioning and Tolerancing • ANSI Y14.6 Screw Thread Representation • ANSI Y14.7 Gear Drawing Standard • ANSI Y14.8 Castings • ANSI Y14.9 Forgings • ANSI Y14.1 Metal Stampings • ANSI Y14.13 to Section 36 Springs, electrical, Title and Notes, …

  7. ANSI Y14.1-1980 Standards • Drawing Sheet Size and Format Standards (ASME and SAE) • Renamed ASME Y14.1-1995 • Scope • Definitions • Drawing size • Standard Drawing sheet sizes • Basic Formats • Title Blocks • Revision Block • Parts List or Bill of Materials (BOM) • Supplementary Bocks • Drawing Numbers

  8. ANSI Y14.1-1980 Standards • Scope • Defines standard sheet sizes and formats for engineering drawings • Definitions • Drawing refers to original sheet on which information is supplied • Standard Drawing sheet sizes • Letter size designations are listed below. • Fig 1 Flat size Formats A through F. Note: Roll sizes are not used at GM • Only flat sizes • Mostly 8.5” x 11” • Basic Formats • Basic Arrangement Fig 1 • Size of Blocks • Title Block Fig 4 and Continuation sheet Fig 5 • Lettering- ANSI 14.2 • Lines • Thick (0.030 in) for Borderline, outline, and main division of blocks. • Thin (0.015 in) for division of parts list and revision blocks, minor subdivision of title blocks and zone markers.

  9. ANSI Y14.1-1980 Standards • Title Blocks- Fig 4 & 5 (MFGT124 drawings must follow this!) • Location- lower right corner • Contents • Block A: Name and address of the company or design activity • Block B: Drawing Title • Block C: Drawing number • Block D: Drafts-person, checker with dates • Block E: Approval with Date • Block F: Approval from other sources with Date (optional) • Block G: Predominate Scale of Drawing • Block H: Drawing number or filename number • Block J: Drawing size letter designation • Block K: Actual or estimated weight of item • Block L: Sheet number for multiple sheet drawings.

  10. ANSI Y14.1-1980 Standards • Revision Block • Location: Located in upper right hand corner of the drawing • Contents: Provides space for revision number or symbol, description or identification of change authorization, date, and approvals. • Parts List or Bill of Materials (BOM) • Location: Located on lower right corner near title block, Additional lists may be located at the left of and adjacent to original block. • For large assemblies, BOM is located in a specified layer of the model. • Example, • Layer 1 is title page with revisions, title block, revision list, and exploded view of assembly • Layer 2 is assembly 1 with detailed dimensions. • Layer 99 is Bill of Material. Layer number of BOM can be standardized on all documents to a layer that is never used for design. • BOM is the order list that the purchase order is written to. • BOM will list those items that are purchased and those items that are manufactured in house.

  11. ANSI Y14.1-1980 Standards • Supplementary Bocks • Information covering GD&T notes, material treatment, finish, general notes. • Drawing Numbers • Location: Lower right corner of the title block and in at least one other location. • Fig 1, 2, and 3 • Fig 9: block descriptions • Revision symbol block • Numbering multiple sheets • Second and subsequent sheets of drawings consisting of more than one sheet are identified by same basic drawing number ant the applicable sheet number. • Example, Sheet 1 of 4, sheet 2 of 4, sheet 4 of 4, etc…

  12. ANSI Y14.2-1980 Standards • Line Conventions and Lettering • Renamed ASME Y14.2-1995 • Scope • Line Conventions • Line Widths • Visible lines, hidden lines, section lines, center lines, break lines, etc. • Arrowheads • Section Lining for cut surfaces of sectional views. Figure 9 • Lettering in Table 1 • One style of lettering should be used throughout a drawing. • Upper case letters on drawings unless lower case is needed with approved equipment or special characters. • Lettering should not be underlined except when special emphasis is required

  13. ANSI/ASME Y14.2-1995Standards • Line Conventions and Lettering • Renamed ASME Y14.2-1995 • Scope • Line Conventions • Line Widths • Visible lines, hidden lines, section lines, center lines, break lines, etc. • Arrowheads • Section Lining for cut surfaces of sectional views. Figure 9 • Lettering in Table 1 • One style of lettering should be used throughout a drawing. • Upper case letters on drawings unless lower case is needed with approved equipment or special characters. • Lettering should not be underlined except when special emphasis is required

  14. V V ASME Y14.2-1995 Standards • Line Conventions and Lettering • Developed from ANSI Scope • Types of Lines

  15. European Standard US Standard Quadrants Top 1st 2nd Front 4th 3rd Front Top ANSI/ASME Y14.3-1995 Standards • Multi and Sectional View Drawings • From ANSI Y14.3-1980 • Multiview System of Orthographic Drawings • Establishes orthographic views for shape descriptions • Refers to the trigonometric quadrants relative to front and top viewing planes of the part. (See Figure) • 6 principal orthographic views have third angle projection in US • Front view is under the top view (Figure Handout) • Most common views are right, top, front, (plus isometric) • Others are left, bottom, rear. • 6 principal orthographic views have first angle projection in Europe • Top view is under the front view • Multiview Drawing Applied • Number of views required to describe a part. • For complex parts, three or four views are required with one being orthographic. • Standard layout includes Front, top, side, and isometric views.

  16. ANSI/ASME Y14.3-1995 Standards • Multi and Sectional View Drawings • Auxiliary Views • Used to show the true size & shape of features not parallel to principal views. • Projected from a principal view. • Sectional Views • Shows interior details that are clearer than exterior views due to hidden lines. • Location of sectional view is indicated by a cutting plane line and arrows. • Used to show the solid materials with thin lines at 45°. Figure 16-6 • More than one line may occupy the same position in a view. Fig 16-7 • Line Order of Preference • Object lines take preference over hidden lines and centerlines. • Hidden lines take preference over centerlines. • Cutting planes take preference over centerlines when showing path of sectional view. • Notice in the right-side-view that when ever a hidden line has precedence over a centerline, the centerline is still drawn in the view by leaving a space and then extending it beyond the edge.

  17. ANSI/ASME Y14.5-1994 Standards • Dimensioning Standards • Dimensions describe the details of a part so it can be constructed to the proper size. • Dimensions options in SolidWorks • Determine the display and position of text and extension lines • Reference dimensions require parentheses • Parentheses can be added to a dimension at anytime through Property option. • Guidelines for dimension spacing • Space between the first dimension line and the part outline should not be less than 10mm. • Space between subsequent parallel dimension lines should not be less than 6 mm. • Spacing may be different depending upon drawing size and scale. • Set the offset distance from last dimension to 6 mm. • Set offset distance from model to 10 mm. • Specify that unless otherwise stated, dimensions are in millimeters of inches • Arrowheads is recommended to be solid filled arrow

  18. ANSI/ASME Y14.5-1994 Standards • Dimensions and Tolerances • All dimensions are subject to tolerancing (amount of permissible variability) • Guidelines for dimensions • Basic dimensions are identified by an enclosing frame symbol. [40] • Is exact size and shape of object which will resize the object if changed • Reference dimensions are identified by a parentheses (40) • Is intended size and for information only. Won’t resize object if changed. • Dimensioning • Chain dimension: Used when tolerances between adjacent features is more important than the overall tolerance of the feature. • Baseline dimension :used when the location of features must be controlled from a common reference point or plane. • Direct Dimensioning: Applied to control specific features • Dimension largest dimension to the outside of the inner dimensions. • Crossing dimension lines with arrow should be avoided. • Guidelines for Witness Lines • Witness lines are extension lines • Visible gap exists between the Extension line and the visible line. • Extension line extends 1.5 mm beyond the Dimension line .

  19. ANSI/ASME Y14.5-1994 Standards • Tolerancing • Parts typically are made in part of an assembly that has to fit together. • Parts are not made to exact dimensions but are made to plus/minus. • Exact dimensions would be expensive to make. • Higher precision = higher costs • Gage blocks are made to very precise dimensions but are used to check parts. • Parts are made to varying degrees of accuracy depending on part requirements. • Some parts are required to be built with low precision (+/- 0.05 in) • Some parts are required to be built with medium precision (+/- 0.005 in) • Some parts are required to be built with high precision (+/- 0.0005 in) • Major terms • Nominal size is designation for general ID, e.g. 9/32 drill or 2 by 4 • Basic size is size from which limits of size are derived by application of allowances and tolerances. Basic size of 9/32 drill is 0.28125 in. • Limits are the extreme allowable sizes for a feature. +/- dim Fig 16-11 • Tolerance is permissible variation in dimension. (Big – Small) Fig 16-12

  20. 1.885 1.875 + .001 - .001 ANSI/ASME Y14.5-1994 Standards • Tolerancing • Major terms • Allowance is minimum clearance between mating parts. (Big – Small) Fig 16-12 • Maximum material condition (MMC) is condition of a part when it contains the MOST amount of material. MMC of an external feature of size (e.g., shaft) is the upper limit. MMC of an internal feature of size (e.g., hole) is the lower limit. • Least Material Condition (LMC) is the condition of a part when it contains the LEAST amount of material. LMC of an external feature of size (e.g., shaft) is lower limit. LMC of an internal feature of size (e.g., hole) is the upper limit. • Limit dimensioning is the maximum and minimum sizes of a feature are specified as shown in Fig 16-13. • Unilateral tolerances is a basic size followed by plus/minus that variaion is allowed only toward one side, usually from the smaller size. E.g., 1.88 +/- 0.001 • Bilateral tolerances is a basic size followed by plus/minus tolerance that is directed toward both directions from nominal size. 1.88 • Criteria to determine tolerance for dimension • Tolerance should be chosen to permit the assembly of randomly selected parts • Tolerance should be as large as possible

  21. American National Standard Holes and Fits • Fits • Fit signifies type of clearance that exists between mating parts. • Clearance Fits provide some gap between mating parts. • Interference Fits have no clearance between mating parts. • Transition fits are listed to result in either a clearance or interference • American National Standard and metric sizes for holes and shafts • Set of classes of fits based on the basic hole system. • Basic hole system used from reamers and drills to produce standard size holes. • Types of fit covered • RC - running and sliding fits • LC - clearance locational fits. • LT – transition locational fits. • LN – interference locational fits. • FN force and shrink fits. • Tables and standards are organized on hole basis, thus basic shaft size and type of fit are needed to determine the dimension and tolerance for mating parts. • Example, RC4 is close running fit and RC 9 is a loose running fit • Standard tables are in Machinery’s Handbook

  22. ANSI/ASME Y14.5-1994 Standards • GD&T Standards • According to ANSI Y14.5-1994 standards, the following rules should be observed: • Each dimension must have a tolerance, either applied directly or indicated by a general note. • Identified as reference, basic, or maximum dimensions are exceptions. • Dimensions for size, form, and location of features should be complete to the extent that there is full understanding of the characteristics of each feature. • Scaling (measuring from drawing) of the print is not allowed. • Assumption of a distance or size is not allowed. • Dimensions should be shown between points, lines, or surfaces having necessary and specific relationship to each other. • Dimensions must be selected and arranged to avoid accumulation of tolerances and more than one interpretation.

  23. ANSI/ASME Y14.5-1994 Standards • GD&T Standards • According to ANSI Y14.5-1994 standards, the following rules should be observed: • Multiview display should define a part without specifying manufacturing methods (CAM). • Thus, only the diameter of the hole is given and not whether it is reamed, punched, drilled, etc. • Finish allowance and shrinkage allowance can be added. • Dimensions should be selected for display to provide required information. • Wires, cables, sheets, or rods, and other display items must be specified by linear dimension, indicating the diameter or thickness. • Surfaces or centerlines shown on displays at right angles to each other are implied to be 90° apart.

  24. ANSI Y14.3-1980 Standards • Multi and Sectional View Drawings • Renamed ASME Y14.3-1995 • Multiview System of Orthographic Drawings • Establishes orthographic views for shape descriptions • 6 principle orthographics views have thirds angle projection in US • Multiview Drawing Applied • Number of views required to describe a part. • For complex parts, three or four views are required with one being orthographic. • Standard layout includes Front, top, side, and isometric views. • Sectional Views • Conventional Representation • Space Geometry • Space Analysis and Applications

  25. Chap 17: GD&T • GD&T Standards • Feature Control Frame • Five Classifications of Tolerance • Review Questions

  26. GD&T Standards • GD&T Standards • Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is a method of defining parts based on how they function • Current standard: ASME Y14.5M-1994 • Major changes from AINSI Y14.5M-1982 • Universal ISO datum feature symbol • Symmetry tolerance symbol is accepted as standard • Elimination of material symbol for regardless of feature size (RFS) • RFS condition applies when the symbols MMC and LMC are not stated on feature. • Major Rules • Rule 1 establishes the default conditions for features of size • Rule 2 establishes a default material condition for feature control frames

  27. GD&T Standards • GD&T Standards • Rule 1- Set Default Conditions for Features of Size • Where only a tolerance of size is specified • The limits of size for an individual feature prescribe the extent to which variations in its form,a s well as size, are allowed. • Dimensioning rule used to ensure that features of size (FOS) will assemble with one another. • Feature size can be a cylinder or spherical surface or a set of opposed elements or surfaces associated with a size dimension. • Features are simply part surfaces. • Results in the maximum boundary for an external FOS is its maximum material condition (MMC). • Results in the minimum envelope for an internal FOS is its MMC. • To determine if two features of size will assemble, the designer compares the MMCs of the features of size.

  28. GD&T Standards • GD&T Standards • Rule 2- Set Default Material Condition for Feature Control Frames

  29. ANSI/ASME Y14.5-1994 Standards • GD&T Standards • Dimensions options in SolidWorks • Determine the display and position of text and extension lines • Reference dimensions require parentheses • Parentheses can be added to a dimension at anytime through Property option. • Guidelines for dimension spacing • Space between the first dimension line and the part outline should not be less than 10mm. • Space between subsequent parallel dimension lines should not be less than 6 mm. • Spacing may be different depending upon drawing size and scale. • Set the offset distance from last dimension to 6 mm. • Set offset distance from model to 10 mm. • Arrowheads is recommended to be solid filled arrow

  30. ANSI/ASME Y14.5-1994 Standards • GD&T Standards • Guidelines for dimensions • Crossing dimension lines with arrow should be avoided. • When dimension line cross, close to an arrowhead, the extension line (Witness line) must be broken. • Order of dimension • Dimension largest dimension to the outside of the inner dimensions. • Guidelines for Witness Lines • Witness lines are extension lines • Visible gap exists between the Extension line and the visible line. • Extension line extends 1.5 mm beyond the Dimension line .

  31. ANSI/ASME Y14.5-1994 Standards • GD&T Standards • According to ANSI Y14.5-1994 standards, the following rules should be observed: • Each dimension must have a tolerance, either applied directly or indicated by a general note. • Identified as reference, basic, or maximum dimensions are exceptions. • Dimensions for size, form, and location of features should be complete to the extent that there is full understanding of the characteristics of each feature. • Scaling (measuring from drawing) of the print is not allowed. • Assumption of a distance or size is not allowed. • Dimensions should be shown between points, lines, or surfaces having necessary and specific relationship to each other. • Dimensions must be selected and arranged to avoid accumulation of tolerances and more than one interpretation.

  32. ANSI/ASME Y14.5-1994 Standards • GD&T Standards • According to ANSI Y14.5-1994 standards, the following rules should be observed: • Multiview display should define a part without specifying manufacturing methods (CAM). • Thus, only the diameter of the hole is given and not whether it is reamed, punched, drilled, etc. • Finish allowance and shrinkage allowance can be added. • Dimensions should be selected for display to provide required information. • Wires, cables, sheets, or rods, and other display items must be specified by linear dimension, indicating the diameter or thickness. • Surfaces or centerlines shown on displays at right angles to each other are implied to be 90° apart.

  33. ANSI/ASME Y14.5-1994 Standards • GD&T Standards • Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) establishes the standard by which designers can communicate the intended function of the part to the machinist making the part and the inspector checking the part. • This standard lets the designer inform the machinist, toolmaker or fabricator what are the important features of the design when they are making the part. • The standard also lets the inspector know what are the important features to inspect form. • GD&T uses symbols to communicate the information to those involved in making the part to eliminate any misunderstanding. • Word explanations can be confusing especially with the global market and the translations of words into different languages. • A simple layout of the symbols used in GD&T can be found as follows

  34. Geometric Characteristic Symbol [|.005] Geometric Tolerance ANSI/ASME Y14.5-1994 Standards • GD&T Standards • Feature Control FramesGeometric ToleranceGeometric Characteristic Symbol • The feature control frame helps to organize the various symbols, see Appendix A or sections 3b-3h, into a sentence. This sentence communicates the information in an organized manner. Figure 3a-1 shows a simple sentence with the geometric symbol and the geometric tolerance that is applied to the intended feature. • The simple sentences can be expanded to contain a greater amount of information. A couple notes about the feature control frames that are important in understanding they’re meaning. The first is the Geometric Tolerance is the total tolerance band for that feature. This means that it is not a +/- tolerance. An example of this is if we have a dimension of 1.00 and a Geometric tolerance of .005, we can interpret this as 1.000 +/-.0025.

  35. Feature Control Frame • Feature Control Frame

  36. Five Classifications of Tolerance • Five Classifications of Tolerance

  37. Review Questions • Review Questions

  38. Chap 18: Computer Aided Design • Wireframe, Surface, and Solid Modeling • Circuit Board Layout • Rapid Prototyping • Review Questions

  39. Rapid Prototype Methods • Rapid prototypying is a process of building objects during the design phase to have a 3-D object to check for fit, form, and function • The rapid prototype will help you visualize the dimensions of the part and see if 3-D object is desired. • The object is made from the solid model geometry in a stereolithography file. • Stereolithography represents the 3-D object as a shell of the part that is broken into triangles. • Rapid prototype process can bring a design on the computer to 3-D shape in a matter of minutes to hours.

  40. Rapid Prototype Process • Process involves CAD system to digitizer to rapid part Computer Aided Design (CAD) Rapid Prototyping Device 3-D Object

  41. Stereolithography • 3D Systems of Valencia, CA (www.3dsystems.com) • Founded in 1987 currently offers • SLA® (stereolithography) systems ($799,000), • ThermoJet® solid object printer ($49,995), and • SLS® (selective laser sintering) • SLA 7000, 5000, 3500, 250 series systems • Used for Limited production runs, Rapid tooling, Prototyping, Master patterns for investment casting • Licenses the complementary 3D Keltool® • Method to produce steel mold inserts.

  42. Stereolithography Process • Process • UV laser cure of epoxy resin in a vat of liquid • Layer of resin above an elevator platform is illuminated with laser and adheres to top of platform. • Platform moves down and next layer drawn onto surface, etc. • Uncured resin is washed with solvent. • Part is post cured. • Specs • Laser: 354.7 wavelength • Build layer: 0.076 mm • Vat volume: 253.6 L • Size: W2.1 x D1.55 x H2.36 m • Weight 1455 kg • Not for office use.

  43. Solid Object Printer • ThermoJet® solid object printer • Builds material yields superior model quality and surface finish that's perfect for most models and investment casting and RTV molding patterns. • Process • Multi Jet Modeling (MJM) Printing of plastic resin • Specs • Resolution: 300 x 400 x 600 DPI (XYZ) • Color: Neutral, gray, or black • Size: 250 x 190 x 200 mm (10 x 7.5 x 8 in) (XYZ) • Ready for office use.

  44. Selective Layer Sintering • The SLS Vanguard Process • Create durable, metal, plastic, or rubber-like parts directly from any solid CAD model in one day • Process • Fuses thermoplastic powder • Specs • Laser: 25 or 100 Watt CO2 • Build layer: 0.076 mm • Vat volume: 253.6 L • Size: W370 x D320 x H445 mm (W14.5 x D12.5 x H17.5”) • Weight 1455 kg • Not for office use.

  45. Selective Layer Sintering (SLS) • SLS System Process • 1. Start with an STL file of your 3-D CAD data. • 2. Enter the data into a Vanguard HS si2™ SLS® system. • 3. Spread a layer of powdered material. As the process begins, a precision roller mechanism automatically spreads a thin layer of powdered SLS material across the build platform. • 4. Sinter a cross-section of the CAD file. Using data from the STL file, a CO2 laser selectively draws a cross section of the object on the layer of powder. As the laser draws the cross section, it selectively "sinters" (heats and fuses) the powder creating a solid mass that represents one cross section of the part. • 5. Repeat. The system spreads and sinters layer after layer until the object is complete. • 6. Remove the part. Once the part is complete, remove it from the part build chamber and blow away any loose powder. • 7. Finish as desired. Use the part as is—or sand, anneal, coat, or paint it beforeusing it for its intended application.

  46. Laminated Object Manufacturing • LOM process laminates adhesive-backed part materials together to form prototypes. • Created by Helisys Corporation • Specs • Laser: 25 or 100 Watt CO2 • Build layer: 0.076 mm • Vat volume: 253.6 L • Size: W370 x D320 x H445 mm (W14.5 x D12.5 x H17.5”) • Weight 1455 kg • Not for office use.

  47. Laminated Object Manufacturing • LOM process laminates adhesive-backed part materials together to form prototypes. • Created by Helisys Corporation • Process • Part material enters the machine as a roll of adhesive-coated sheet. • Sheet is pulled through the machine and over build area. • Heated platen rolls laminate the new layer over previous layers. • Laser outlines the boundary of the desired cross section of the part. • Material outside the boundary area of the part is crosshatched. • Process continues as additional layers are added until part is done. • Crosshatched part material serves as a support for undercut features on higher layers within the part. • Manual “debugging”step is required to remove all of the small cubes of crosshatched . • Polymer material is used

  48. Z Corporation 3-D Printing • Z Corporation • Licensee of 3-D Printing process from MIT • Process • Smooth bed of starch and cellulose powder. • Liquid binder (water based) is deposited over certain regions of the bed and bound together. • Porous surface is closed with heat or with • wax for office environment, or • cyanocrylate resin for stronger part.

  49. Z Corporation 3-D Printing • Z Corporation • Licensee of 3-D Printing process from MIT • Specs • Build layer: • Vat volume: • Size: • Weight • Not for office use.

  50. Fused Deposition Modeling • Stratasys Corporation • Process • Extrudes plastic bead through nozzle onto heated table. • Builds layers of plastic part. • Plastic can be ABS, Polyester • Removable support structure is built under part for support. • Specs • Build layer: • Vat volume: • Size: • Weight • Ready for office use.