Unit 3Geology of the Ocean, Water, Waves, and Tides Mrs. Stahl Marine Biology
Some Facts • Planet Earth began about 400 MYA • Surface was so hot that water could not remain there • No free oxygen gas in the atmosphere • Ocean began forming 4.2 billion years ago • Life first evolved in the ocean • Ocean covers 70.8%
The Formation of the Oceans 1st-> Earth was composed of cold matter and that over time several factors such as energy from space and decay of radioactive elements-> caused increase in temperature.
2nd • Heating continued on for several hundred million years until the center of the Earth was hot enough to melt iron and nickel.
3rd • Elements melted and went to the core (denser) and raised the core temperatures to 2,000 C
4th • Molten material from Earth’s core moved to the surface and spread out, creating some of Earth’s landscape.
5th • Heating / cooling took place, water in the form of water vapor was carried to the surface where it cooled, condensed, and formed the ocean.
Origin of Life • Gaseous oxygen did not start to accumulate in the atmosphere until the evolution of modern photosynthesis (3 billion years ago).
Oxides Chemical Compound containing at least one oxygen atom as well as another element.
The Earth was devoid of oxygen… Because oxygen is a strong oxidizer of other compounds it tends to form oxides with these compounds, which bind any free oxygen.
Biologists theorize that the molecules (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, and ammonia) formed and accumulated in the ocean and over time the ocean turned into a huge, highly concentrated bowl of nutrient soup.
The molecules then became organized and the first cells evolved. • There wasn’t any oxygen so the first cells had to be anaerobic. • The first cells were also heterotrophs or relied on others for food.
The oldest marine fossil is marine bacteria and was found in NW Australia between 3.4 and 3.5 billion years old.
There are Four Major Basins Pacific Atlantic Indian Arctic
What is the order from largest to smallest? Pacific Atlantic Indian Arctic
The area around Antarctica is referred to as the Southern or Antarctic
Continental Drift The movement of the seafloor caused by the continuous movement o the continents that rest on it.
The seafloor is constantly being replaced with new seafloor, therefore organisms have to adapt constantly.
The thickest layer…… Mantle
Made of Iron and Nickel….. Inner Core
Thick Layer of Magma….. Mantle
Greatest Mass….. Mantle
Outer region is rigid Upper Mantle
Inner Layer Flows Mantle
Hottest Layer Inner Core
Thinnest and Coolest Crust
Outermost Layer Crust
Label!!!!!! Take a few minutes and label the diagram of the Earth.
Crust Mantle Outer Core Inner Core
Moving Continents Timeline of Moving Continents Early 1600’s Sir Frances Bacon Continents may have once been connected to each other. Proposed Gondwanaland- fusion of Southern Continents (S. America, Africa, India, Antarctica, and Australia). 19th Century Edward Suess 1915 Alfred Wegener One supercontinent= Pangaea. Forces of the Earth’s rotation separated the continents. Molten rock / Magma in the mantle moved by convection currents (heating and cooling of magma). 1960’s H.H. Hess