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Period V Vocab Review

Period V Vocab Review

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Period V Vocab Review

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  1. Period V Vocab Review

  2. Monroe Doctrine • Established the Americas as a protectorate of the United States in 1823 • Limited European interaction in American affairs and claimed that any interference would be considered an act of aggression.

  3. Suffragette • Females who led the call for voting rights for women

  4. Social Darwinism • Belief that some races were more evolved than others and therefore had a right to dominate “inferior” races • One of the leading justifications for imperialism

  5. Abolitionist • Person seeking to end slavery • As public outcries against slavery increased and religious leaders/Enlightenment thinkers began to view slavery as immoral, slavery was abolished during the 1800s

  6. Rudyard Kipling’s “White Man’s Burden” • Poem displaying the view that civilizing the “Backwards” people of Africa was a burden upon Europeans and that they were doing the Africans a favor by instituting European culture and religion

  7. EIC control of India • Prior to the Sepoy Rebellion, the EIC (East India Company) colonized India using economic manipulation and a military comprised of British and Native Indian soldiers • Helped bring the Industrial Revolution to India along with railroads and education

  8. Sepoy Mutiny/India Rebellion of 1857 • Rebellion of Indian soldiers (Sepoy’s) agains the EIC for forcing them to use rifle cartridges greased with Beef and Pork fat (real issue was blatant racism and disrespect of Indian people and culture) • The British military was sent in for support and Britain would directly colonize India, reducing the power of the EIC

  9. British Raj • 1858-1947 • Period of British rule in India after the putdown of the Sepoy Rebellion and the transfer of power from the EIC to Queen Victoria

  10. Indian National Congress • Founded in 1885 • Sought more power and rights for the Indian people during British rule • Failed to unite the people due to the majority of people being upper-class

  11. Opium Wars • Attempts made by the Chinese to stop the flow of Opium to China by the British • British military superiority prevailed and China was “carved up like a melon” into spheres of influence by the European powers • Showed the people of China that they were not as superior as they had thought

  12. Treaty of Nanjing/ Kanagawa/Unequal Treaties • Unequal treaties were made between European powers and Japan/China that put the Asian countries at a disadvantage. Led to the Westernization of Japan and “Self-strengthening movement” in China • Treaty of Nanjing- signed at the end of Opium Wars. Forced China to pay reparations, give up Hong Kong, and gave British economic rights in Chinese ports, also allowed for Christian missionaries • Treaty of Kanagawa- Came as a result of Commodore Perry’s “Gunboat Diplomacy” and opened up Japanese ports to the United States

  13. Taiping Rebellion • 1850-1864 • Civil War starting in Guangxi province against the rule of the Qing dynasty, which was seen as a foreign ruler who was largely responsible for the losses to the Europeans

  14. Self-Strengthening Movement • Half-hearted Chinese attempt to westernize while holding on to Chinese culture and traditions • Ultimately failed in its goal of resisting Western encroachment

  15. Sino-Japanese War • Japanese War with China for control of Korea once they realized the extent of China’s weakness • Marks the start of Japan’s imperialist age

  16. Sphere of Influence • Form of imperialism where a foreign country dominates the economic interests of an area without having to fully control them governmentally • Order of imperial control from most controlling to least controlling: • 1. Colony 2. Protectorate 3. Sphere of Influence

  17. Boxer Rebellion • Rebellion against the Manchu rulers in protest of their failures against the British during the Opium Wars and the signing of “unequal treaties”

  18. Matthew Perry • United States Commodore who used his “gunboat diplomacy” to intimidate the Japanese into opening up their ports for trade

  19. Meiji Restoration • Japanese period of emergence from feudalism and a transfer of power from the shoguns to the emperor, largely spurred on by the samurai • During this period, Japan westernized at a rapid pace and was able to become an imperialist power who competed with Western nations for dominance in Asia

  20. Russo-Japanese War • War between Japan and Russia over control of Manchuria and it’s resources • Russia would eventually lose, which marks the first defeat of a European power at the hands of an Asian nation • Signals Japan’s strength and imperialist goals

  21. End of the Slave Trade/Slavery • Slave trade was ended by 1820 by European nations, but slavery existed in the Western Hemisphere until the late 1800’s (Brazil was the last to abolish ownership of slaves) • In large part due to Enlightenment thought and a rise in morality against the very existence of slavery

  22. Boer War • War between the British colonists and Dutch colonists (Boers) over control of the diamond and gold mines of South Africa • Results in South Africa officially being annexed Britain and becoming part of the British Empire

  23. African National Congress • Imitation of the Indian National Congress, this was an attempt by educated South Africans to oppose European colonialism and its racist policies

  24. Suez Canal/British control of Egypt • Suez Canal connected the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea. This vastly increased European dominance of trade and made goods more available and affordable. • The British desired control of Egypt for this very reason and decidedly kicked out the French

  25. Berlin Conference • Meeting of European powers to solve disputes over the Congo region of Africa in 1884 • Led to the eventual partitioning of Africa through the colonial efforts of most of the major European powers, who paid little attention to the various cultures and tribes that lived in Africa

  26. Ethiopia and Liberia • Only two countries in Africa who were independent as of 1914 • Ethiopians kicked out the Italians • Liberia was also resettled by freed American slaves who returned to Africa

  27. Differences in European Control: India, China, Africa • India- Dutch EIC and British EIC initially used India as a trading post and eventually would be completely dominated and fully colonized by the British: Indirect Control by Britain, which used native Indian gov’t bureaucrats • China- European powers carved up China into spheres of influence: Economic Control! • Africa- Several European countries utilized Africa’s people, resources, and land by creating mostly directly colonies (except some British ones): Goal = resource extraction

  28. Nationalism • A movement of pride and loyalty based on bonds such as ethnicity, language, religion, culture, ideology, or location • Is a leading cause of reform movements and revolutions throughout the globe in the wake of imperialism

  29. Westernization • Introduction and assimilation of all aspects of Western (European) society including: religion, culture, education, military and government • Countries that westernized, such as Japan, were able to compete with European powers during the Age of Imperialism

  30. Industrial Revolution • Started in Britain in 1750’s • Rapid technological advances led to increases in textile production, the factory system, urbanization, and the growth of European nations • Ultimately changed the social, economic, and political structures of industrialized societies • 1st wave- textile production, coal, steam • 2nd wave- steel, chemicals, electricity, precision machinery

  31. Enclosure Movement • Closing of “common lands” to increase centralized agricultural production • Came about due to advances during the Agricultural Revolution of the 1700s • Forced people off of farms and created a labor supply and food surplus which would be crucial to the Industrial Revolution

  32. Urbanization • Movement of people from farms to the city • Led to problems with sanitation, building codes, disease, poverty

  33. Factory System • Organizing business in a very mundane and efficient method • Use of assembly lines, specialized tasks, interchangeable parts, and machines created products at an increased rate and made them more affordable

  34. Factories’ effect on Women/Families • Middle class women were kept at home and taught to develop their domestic skills while lower/working class women went to work in the factories yet were still expected to fulfill their domestic duties • Reinforced strict gender roles and also broke apart lower class families as individual family members moved to the factories where they would live

  35. Adam Smith • Laissez Faire/Free Market Capitalism- Belief that businesses should be left to operate free of government interference

  36. Karl Marx • Father of communism who advocated shared property and saw history as a series of conflict between the “haves” and the “have-nots”

  37. Factory Act of 1883 • Limited working hours • Restricted child labor in factories • Forced owners to make factories cleaner and safer

  38. Labor Unions • Workers organized together to collectively bargain for their rights, including: • Safety • Hours • Wages

  39. Social Mobility • Social Mobility increased as more and more people began to see an increase in earned wages, especially as worker conditions improved • The middle class grew as a result of this newfound social mobility

  40. French Revolution • Revolution of the French people (mainly 3rd estate) against the abuses of the monarchy (Louis XVI) and Nobility • People were seeking a representative government based on Enlightenment ideas

  41. Estates General • Meeting called by Louis XVI for representatives of the 3 Estates (1st= Clergy, 2nd= Nobles, 3rd= Everyone Else) to address taxes and complaints • 3rd Estate rejected the idea of meeting separately and instead walked out and formed the National Assembly

  42. Tennis Court Oath • Decision by the National Assembly to convene until a constitution was drawn up

  43. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen • Recognized the natural rights of man and was based largely on the ideas of the Enlightenment, the American Declaration of Independence, and writings of Rousseau

  44. Paris Mob/Jacobins • Radical political party who would form the Convention and establish France as a Republic • Imprisoned the royal family and had them beheaded

  45. Robespierre/Committee of Public Safety • Leader of the Jacobins who formed the Committee of Public Safety in response to foreign and internal threats • Used his power to go on a “Reign of Terror” against political and anti-revolutionary opponent, beheading large numbers of French citizens • Was later beheaded himself

  46. Napoleon • French general who gained popularity with the people and would be eventually become Emperor • Expanded France’s borders across Europe and went on continuous military campaigns, including the infamous Russian campaign which began his demise • Finally defeated at Waterloo after a brief return from exile

  47. Congress of Vienna 1815 • Meeting of European powers to discuss how to restore order in Europe • Decided to: • Take French territory back • Reinstitute absolute rule and reseat the French, Spanish, and Holland rulers • Attempted to erase the French Revolution’s legacy

  48. Haitian Revolution/L’Ouverture • Slave revolt led by Toussaint L’Ouverture to get rid of their French colonial masters • Despite attempts by Napoleon to put down the revolt, including the capture of L’Ouverture, the revolution succeeded and Haiti became the first indpendent nation in Latin America

  49. Simon Boliva/Jose de San Martin • Creole military leaders who helped lead revolts in South America against the Spanish • Goal of Bolivar was to unify South America into a single nation (Gran Columbia), but ultimately failed as internal conflicts prevented true unification

  50. Mexican Revolution (1810)/Father Hidalgo • Revolution against the Spanish led by Father Miguel Hidalgo • Amerindians and mestizos were the primary rebels who were seeking more rights and freedom • With the Treaty of Cordoba, Mexico gained independence and other Central American countries would soon follow