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  2. Human Resource Management Human Resource:-The human resources of an organization include all the individuals engaged in various organizational activities at different levels. Meaning of HRM:- Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization's most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. | | <document classification>

  3. Nature of Personnel/HR Management • Inherent part of management:-HRM is inherent in the process of management. • This function is performed by all the managers throughout the organization rather than by the personnel department only. | | <document classification>

  4. Basic to all functional areas:-personnel management permeates all the functional areas of management such as production management, financial management etc.That is, every manager from top to bottom,working in any department has to perform the personnel functions. | | <document classification>

  5. People centered:-Personnel management is people centered and is relevant in all types of organizations. • Personnel activities or functions:- • Personnel management involves several functions concerned with the management of people at work.It includes manpower planning, employment,placement etc. | | <document classification>

  6. Continuous process:-Personnel management is not a ‘one shot’ function.It must be performed continuously if the organizational objectives are to be achieved smoothly. | | <document classification>

  7. Objectives of Personnel/HR Management • The objectives of personnel management, or personnel administration in an organization, are to obtain maximum individual development, desirable working relationships between employers and employees,utilization of human resources effectively etc. | | <document classification>

  8. Importance Of HRM • 1.Significance for an enterprise:- • Attracting and retaining the required talent through effective human resource planning, recruitment, selection, placement etc. • Developing the necessary skills and right attitudes among the employees through training, development etc. • Securing willing cooperation of employees through motivation, participation etc. • Utilizing effectively the available human resources. | | <document classification>

  9. Professional significance:- • Provide maximum opportunities for personal development of each employee. • Maintaining healthy relationships between individuals and different work groups. • Allocating work properly. | | <document classification>

  10. Social significance:- • Providing suitable employment that provides social and psychological satisfaction to people. • Maintaining a balance between the jobs available and the jobseekers in terms of numbers, qualifications, needs and aptitudes. | | <document classification>

  11. National significance:- • Human resources and their management plays a vital role in the development of a nation.The effective exploitation and utilization of a nation’s natural, physical and financial resource require an efficient and committed manpower. | | <document classification>

  12. Functions of HRM There are three categories of functions which the personnel manager is expected to perform. • Managerial • Operative • Advisory | | <document classification>

  13. Managerial functions: • Planning • Organizing • Directing • controlling | | <document classification>

  14. Operative functions: • Employment • Training and development • Remuneration • Working conditions • Motivation • Personnel records • Industrial relations • separation | | <document classification>

  15. Advisory functions: • Advice to top management • Advice to departmental heads | | <document classification>

  16. BLOCK-2 Getting Human Resources | | <document classification>

  17. Job Analysis • Job analysis is a detailed and systematic study of jobs to know the nature and characteristics of people to be employed for each job.It is a process of discovering and identifying the pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job. | | <document classification>

  18. Job analysis involves: • Job identification. • Nature of the job. • Operations involved in doing the job. • Materials and equipments to be used in doing an job. • Personal attributes required to do the job, e.g education, training,mental capabilities etc. • Relation with the other jobs. | | <document classification>

  19. Objectives of Job Analysis • Work simplification • Establishment • Support of other personnel activities | | <document classification>

  20. Uses Of Job Analysis • Human resource planning: • Recruitment and Selection: • Placement. • Training and development. • Job evaluation • Performance appraisal • Employee counseling • Job design • Organizational design | | <document classification>

  21. Steps In Job Analysis • There are eight steps in job analysis: • 1.Organize and plan for the programme. • 2.Obtain current job design information. • 3.Conduct ‘needs research’. • 4.Establish priorities in the jobs to be analyzed. • 5. collect job data. • 6.Redesign the jobs, if necessary. • 7.Prepare job descriptions and job classifications. • 8.Developing job specifications. | | <document classification>

  22. Methods Of Job Analysis • 1.Functional Job Analysis:- • The rationale behind job analysis is that jobs must be defined in terms of the interaction between the task, and the environment in which the task is to be performed. | | <document classification>

  23. 2.Critical Incidents Technique: • The critical incidents technique utilize actual episodes of on-the-job behavior. | | <document classification>

  24. 3.Job Elements Approach:- • This method of job analysis was developed by Ernest Primtoff at the federal office of personnel management and uses as its focus the elements that a worker uses in performing a specific job. • Job elements include knowledge, skills, and abilities as well as willingness , interest and personal characteristics. | | <document classification>

  25. 4.Position analysis questionnaire(PAQ): • The position Analysis questionnaire was developed by McCormick and associates on the assumption that there is an underlying taxonomy to all jobs.PAQ approach focuses on broad categories common to all jobs rather than on individual elements of specific jobs. | | <document classification>

  26. 5.Physical Abilities Requirements Approach: | | <document classification>

  27. Job Description and Job Specification • Job Description:A job description is an organized factual statement of job contents in the form of duties and responsibilities of a specific job. • The preparation of job description is necessary before a vacancy is advertised. • It tells in brief the nature and type of job. • Job description document discloses what is to be done, how it is to be done and why it is to be done. | | <document classification>

  28. Contents of job description: • 1.Job title • 2.Job location • 3.Job summary • 4.Duties to be performed • 5.Machines, tools, materials • 6.Relation to other jobs • 7.Nature of supervision • 8.Working environment | | <document classification>

  29. Job Specification: • A job specification is a document which states the minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly. • It sets forth requirements sought in the person who is to be selected to perform a particular job. • The job specification should define the minimum acceptable standards for employment and performance on the job. | | <document classification>

  30. JOB Design • The term job design refers to the way the tasks are combined to form a complete job. • Job design is a process which integrates work content (tasks, functions, relationships),the reward and the qualifications required for each job in a way that meet the needs of employees and the organization. | | <document classification>

  31. Purpose Of Job Design • To meet the organizational requirements such as higher productivity, operational efficiency, quality of product/service etc. • To satisfy the needs of the individual employees like interest, challenge, achievement or accomplishment etc. • To integrate the needs of the individual with the organizational requirements. | | <document classification>

  32. Techniques Of Job Design • Work simplification:In work simplification the complete job is broken down into small sub-parts, usually consisting of few operations. • This is done so that employees can do these jobs without much specialized training. | | <document classification>

  33. Job Rotation:Job rotation refers to the practice of shifting people from one job to another within a working group so that there is some variety and relief from the boredom of routine. | | <document classification>

  34. Job Enlargement:Job enlargement means assignment of varied tasks or duties of the jobs of employees all on the same level. • The additional tasks or duties do not require new skills but can be performed with similar skills and efforts as before. | | <document classification>

  35. Job Enrichment:Job enrichment implies increasing the contents of a job or the deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope and challenge in work. • It is motivational technique which emphasizes the need for challenging and interesting work. • It leads to a vertically enhanced job by adding functions from other organizational levels. | | <document classification>

  36. Human Resource Planning • Human resource Planning is the process by which a management determines how an organization can move from its current manpower position to desired manpower position. • Through planning, a management strives to have the right number and the right kind of people at the right places, at right time. | | <document classification>

  37. Objectives Of HRP • Ensure optimum use of human resources currently employed. • Avoid balances in the distribution and allocation of human resources. • Assess or forecast future skill requirements of the organization’s overall objectives. • Provide control measure to ensure availability of necessary resources when required. • Control the cost aspect of human resources. • Formulate transfer and promotion policies. | | <document classification>

  38. Levels of HRP • Human Resource Planning is practically useful at different levels: • 1.At national level, it is generally done by the government and covers items like population projections, programme of economic development, educational facilities, occupational distribution etc. | | <document classification>

  39. At the sector level, it may be done by the government –central or state and may cover manpower needs of agricultural, industrial and service sector. • At industry level,it may cover manpower forecast for specific industries, such as engineering, heavy industries, consumer goods industries etc. • At the level of individual unit, it may relate to its manpower needs for various departments and for various types of personnel. | | <document classification>

  40. Process Of HRP • Deciding Goals or objectives. • Estimating future organizational structure and manpower requirements . • Auditing human resources. • Planning job requirements and job descriptions . • Developing a human resource. | | <document classification>

  41. Techniques of HR Demand Forecast • Managerial judgment:In this, experienced managers estimate the human resource requirements. • Work study method:In this method time and motion study are used to analyze and measure the work being done. • Ration trend analysis:Under this method ratios are calculated on the basis of past data. • Mathematical models:It expresses the relationship between independent variable(investment, production,sales) and dependent variables (e.g no.of employees required). | | <document classification>

  42. Recruitment • Recruitment is a process of searching prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for the jobs in the organization. | | <document classification>

  43. Process Of Recruitment • Preparation for recruitment • Physical specification • Mental specification • Emotional and social specification • Behavioral specification | | <document classification>

  44. Sources Of Recruitment Sources of recruitment can be classified into two types • Internal source:Filling the job opening from within the firm. • External source:These sources lie outside the organization. | | <document classification>

  45. Outside sources of Recruitment • Advertising • Employment agencies • Employee referrals • Schools,colleges and professional institutions • Labor unions • Casual applicants • Nepotism • Leasing • Voluntary organizations • Computer data banks | | <document classification>

  46. Selection • Selection procedure is essentially a series of methods of securing pertinent information about the applicant. • The basic purpose of the selection process is to choose right type of candidate to match various positions in the organization. | | <document classification>

  47. Selection Procedure • Preliminary interview • Receiving applications • Screening of applications • Employment test • Employment interview • Physical examination • Checking references • Final selection. | | <document classification>

  48. Types of Tests Achievement or intelligence tests:These measure the skill or knowledge. • Aptitude or potential ability tests:These tests measure latent ability of a candidate to learn a new job or skill. • Personality tests:These discover clues to an individual’s value system, his emotional emotional reactions,maturity and his characteristic mood. • Interest test:These tests are designed to discover a persons areas of interests and to identify the kind of work that will satisfy him. | | <document classification>

  49. Outsourcing • Outsourcing is subcontracting a process, such as product design or manufacturing, to a third-party company.The decision to outsource is often made in the interest of lowering firm costs, redirecting or conserving energy directed at the competencies of a particular business, or to make more efficient use of land, labor, capital, (information) technology and resources. | | <document classification>

  50. Socialisation • Socialization refers to the process by which persons acquire the knowledge, skills, and disposition that make them more or less able members of their society. | | <document classification>