UNIT – I 1. DEFINING THE MANAGERIAL JOB 1.1. Descriptive Dimensions of Managerial Jobs 1.2. Methods 1.3. Model 1.4. Time Dimensions in Managerial Jobs 1.5. Effective and Ineffective Job behavior 1.6. Functional and level differences in Managerial Job behavior.
INTRODUCTION • The manager is one who manages himself/herself and is capable of managing others for the accomplishment of the organizational goals. • Behaviour is conduct of a person.
DIMENSIONS OF MANAGERIAL JOB Descriptive Behaviour 1.Gathering information, analysis & problem solving 2. Planning & organizing the projects 3. Time management 4.Budgeting & financial management
HENDRY FAYOL MANAGERIAL ACTIVITIES - FUNCTIONAL • Technical (Production, Manufacturing) • Commercial (Buying, selling, exchanging) • Financial (obtaining and using capital) • Security (Protecting of property and persons) • Accounting (Balance sheet, Stock taking, Statistics and costing) • Managerial (Planning, organizing, commanding, co-ordinating, control)
TIME MANAGEMENT Act or process of exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities to increase efficiency and productivity
TIME MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES • Principle of Brevity – Short Meetings, Comfortable for prolong meetings. • Principle of Habit –routine meetings at the end of the day • Delegation of authority – identify amount of work and assigning • Time Estimates – Set a time limit • Principle of Prioritization – List and schedule as per importance. Avoid big or small things
TIME MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES • Write Goals: Paying off debts, finishing project on dates. • Proper Implementation: Start meeting on time. Reward people arrive on time rather than laggards. • Proper planning and follow-up: Minutes of meeting. • Principle of Effectiveness: Let subordinates suggest solution.
THE TIME MANAGEMENT MATRIX Urgent Not Urgent Important Not Important
SOME OF THE TIME WASTERS Internal time wasters: • Poor communication-written and verbal • Procrastination • Inability to say ‘No’ • Poor prioritizing • Inadequate planning • Failure to delegate External time wasters • Visitors • Meetings • Papers and correspondence • Telephone • Procedures and systems • Travel • Subordinates
TIME DIMENSIONS • Three laws of time and effort management: 1. The law for planning time – Doing right work at right time 2. The law for applying effort – Searching right opportunity and utilizing 3. The law for investing talent – Utilization of talent
Top Level Management: • Determines the objectives, policies and plans of the organisation. • Mobilisesresources. • Work of thinking, planning and deciding. Called as Brain of the organisation. • Prepare long-term plans • Final authority in the organisation. • Responsible to Shareholders, Government and the GeneralPublic. • Success or failure depends on efficiency & decisionmaking. • They require more conceptualskills and less technicalSkills.
Middle Level Management: • Middle level management gives recommendations to the top level management. • It executes policies and plans. • Co-ordinate the activities of all the departments. • Communicate with the top level Management and the lower level management. • Spend time in co-ordinating and communicating. • Prepare short-term plans of their departments which are generally made for 1 to 5 years. • Intermediary between top and lower management. • Require more managerial and technical skills and less conceptual skills.
Lower Level Management: • Lower level management directs the workers / employees. • Develop morale in the workers. • Maintains a link between workers and middle management. • Inform the management about the performance, difficulties, feelings, demands, etc., of the workers. • Spend more time in directing and controlling. • The lower level managers make daily, weekly and monthly plans. • Limitedauthority but important.
FUNCTIONAL LEVEL MANAGERS • Financial Manager: Responsible for accounting, cash management and investment. • Marketing Manager: To develop new product, promote sales and distribution of product or service. • Production Manager: In charge of production and maintenance of machinery and equipments. • HR Manager: HRP, recruiting, selecting employees, T&D, designing compensation and benefit system. • Operations Manager: Transform input to output. Deals with layout, production, inventory and quality control. • Research and Development Manager: Coordinates the activities of Scientist and engineers on scientific projects.
General Managers: • Not associated with any particular area. • Basic familiarity with all the functions rather than specialized training. • Line Managers: • Responsible for major work activities that contribute to production or service. • Staff Managers: • Responsible for specialized services in support of line managers
Organisation Environment Individual Characteristics • Intelligence • Aptitude • Knowledge • Temperament • Preference • Expectation • Ability • Motivation • Opportunity Transformation Process • Managerial job • dimension • General functions • Special functions Organisational Results • Profit Maximization • Organizational • efficiency • High Productivity • Employee satisfaction • Customer satisfaction Person Process Product MODELS OF JOB BEHAVIOUR • Heuristic Model: Indicates how the various managerial characteristics and resourcefulness acting as inputs is being transformed into outputs through a transformation process.
MODELS OF JOB BEHAVIOUR • Heroic Models of the manager • It involves planning, assigning, monitoring and coordinating the activities of the organisation. • Participative decision-making is lacking in this model. • It is manager centered and the success relies heavily on control capabilities. • Manager as Master Technician • Emphasizes more on technical knowledge for success. • More importance given for Individualistic attention and expectations. • Applicable in organizations where knowledge of manager is very wide, interpersonalrelationsminimal and where subordinates are not committed, co-operative and highly dependent.
MODELS OF JOB BEHAVIOUR • Manager as Conductor • Manager tries to resolve conflicts between managerial and subordinate thinking. • Higher Involvement of subordinates in any activities. • Getting subordinates to buy ideas may be time consuming. • Manager as a Developer Subordinates share managerial and task responsibility. Crisis management is possible. New opportunities can be assessed easily Knowledge and expertise sharing becomes possible. Creates opportunities for personal learning.
IDENTIFYING MANAGERIAL TALENT • Talent identification is very important for a business in identifying the talent within their business, retaining that talent to good use.
METHODS / WAYS OF IDENTIFYING TALENT • Traditional Method – IQ Test • Interviews • Simulations – work related behaviour • Performance Appraisal – Individual’s record of past managerial performance
STRATEGIES TO RETAIN TALENT • Creating and Maintaining a Healthy Work Culture • Employee Participation • Provision of Benefits • Fair and Competitive Salaries • Fringe Benefits • Training and Development • Variety of Assignments • Communicating Openly • Flexibility • Orientation Program • Providing Best Possible Equipments
RECRUITMENT Recruitment is the process of locating and encouraging potential applicants to apply for existing and anticipated job opening.
1. Recruitment Planning: • Numbers of contact: number of applicants necessary to fill all vacancies with the qualified people. • Types of contacts: qualifications and experience expected. 2. Sources of Recruitment:
Contacting Sources: • Objective Factor Theory: Evaluating based on characteristics of employment offers, such as, financial compensation and benefits, opportunities for advertisement, nature of work, location etc. • Subjective Factor Theory: Congruence between personality patterns of the candidate and the image of the organization, and the choice is made on highly personal and emotional basis. • Critical Contact Theory: Candidate is unable to make a meaningful differentiation of employment offers and terms of objective and subjective factors because of his limited or very short contact with the organization. 4. Application Pool: To attract as many candidates as possible. 5. Selection Process: Identify those with a greater likelihood of success in a job.
SELECTION • Employee Selection is the process of putting right men on right job. • It is a procedure of matching organizational requirements with the skills and qualifications of people.
MANAGERIAL SKILL DEVELOPMENT A systematic process of growth and development by which the managers develop their abilities to manage.
METHODS OF MANAGERIAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME • ON-THE-JOB TRAINING • On-the-Job training (OJT) • Job instruction training (JIT) • Coaching • Job Rotation • Understudy • Apprenticeship
METHODS OF MANAGERIAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME • OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING • Lectures • Discussion Method • Demonstration • Simulation • Case Study • Role plays • Brain storming • Field Trip
METHODS OF TRAINING EVALUATION • Post-training performance evaluation. • Pre- training performance evaluation. • Attitudinal change. • Test scores. • Improvement in production or methods of problem solving.
REWARDS Objectives of Reward Management • Support the organisation’s strategy • Recruit & retain • Motivate employees • Internal & external equity • Strengthen psychological contract • Financially sustainable • Comply with legislation • Efficiently administered
TYPES OF REWARD • Extrinsic rewards: concrete rewards that employee receive. • Bonuses • Salary raise • Gifts • Promotion • Other kinds of tangible rewards • Intrinsic rewards: tend to give personal satisfaction to individual • Information / feedback • Recognition • Trust • Relationship • Empowerment • Monogrammed name plaque
b) ALDERFER'S ERG THEORY • Growth needs: Development of competence and realization of potential • Relatedness needs: Satisfactory relations with others • Existence needs: Physical well-being
c) MANIFEST NEEDS BY MURRAY AND MCCLELLAND Assumptions: • There is no hierarchy of needs • Needs are learned, not instinctive • Needs are never completely satisfied • (N Ach) Achievement • (N Aff) Affiliation • (N Aut) Autonomy • (N Pow) Power (Dominance)
2. PROCESS THEORY a) Adam’s Equity Theory: Employees compare their efforts and rewards with those of others in similar work situations.
b) VROOM EXPECTANCY THEORY Motivation (M) = Expectancy (E) * Instrumentality (I) * Valence (V) • Expectancy is the person's perception that effort will result in performance. • Instrumentality is the person's perception that performance will be rewarded or punished. • Valence is the strength of the reward or punishment that will result from the performance.
c) GOAL SETTING THEORY • Goal setting involves establishing SMART goals. • S – Specific • M – Measurable • A – Achievable • R – Realistic • T – Time Bound