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Life in the West

Life in the West

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Life in the West

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  1. Life in the West • 3 million native Americans lived in the West before Europeans arrived • they were diverse in language and culture • West had natural wealth in timber, gold, silver, and other resources • West changed the nation’s economy and politics • Created a folklore of “rugged individuals” Sioux Cheyenne

  2. The Explorers Purpose of the Lewis and Clark Expedition: • Find the “Northwest Passage” • Make friendly contact with the native Indian groups • Find out just what had been bought with the Louisiana Purchase

  3. Up the Missouri River • Expedition started in May, 1804 from St. Louis, Missouri • Led by Lewis and Clark • Accompanied by a Shoshone woman, Sacagawea

  4. Lewis and Clark

  5. To the Pacific and Back • Progress of expedition was slowed by rapids and waterfalls • To cross the Rocky Mts. they needed horses. • Traded with the Shoshone • Friendly Nez Perce in the Pacific Northwest helped them Shoshone Nez Perce

  6. The Explorers’ Legacy John C Fremont • Expedition returned in September 1806: Had not found a Northwest Passage Did map a route to the Pacific Established good relations with the Indians Brought back information about the West and its peoples • Zebulon Pike explored the valley of the Arkansas River, the Spanish territory along the Rio Grande and Red River • John C. Fremont mapped between the Mississippi river and the Pacific Ocean Zebulon Pike Pike’s Peak

  7. The Californios The California Missions • Junipero Serra started the missions in 1769 • Goal was to convert Indians to Christianity • Missions stretched from San Diego to San Francisco • Missions were deadly to Indians • Indians treated harshly and died from diseases • Mexican government closed the the missions in 1833 • Gave the land to soldiers and settlers

  8. San Juan Capistrano

  9. Life on the Ranchos • Californios produced almost everything they needed • In 1830’s cattle ranching became California’s most important industry • Cattle provided hides and tallow that were traded vaquero

  10. Californios’ Legacy • Place names such as San Diego, Los Angeles, and San Francisco • Crops such as grapes, olives, and citrus fruits • Opened California to the world

  11. The Mountain Men • Lewis and Clark expedition stirred new interest in the fur trade • In 1807, 42 trappers went up the Missouri River • For 30 years trappers crisscrossed the West in search of furs

  12. The Trapper’s Life • Lived hard and died young • In spring and fall, set their traps • In summer, they met at rendezvous to swap furs for supplies • Trappers were attacked by fur thieves, Indians, wolves, and bears

  13. Mountain Men

  14. Freedom and Adventure • Trappers braved the lifestyle for freedom and adventure • In 1830’s, fur trade was in decline • Many trappers became explorers, army scouts, and traders

  15. Hatchet Jack

  16. Skin a Grizz

  17. Mountain Men’s Legacy • Mountain men explored most of the West • Routes they pioneered became the Oregon and California Trails • Trading posts became supply stations for the pioneers • Personal journals gave readers an insight into their lives California Trail Oregon Trail

  18. Possibles bag

  19. Rendezvous

  20. MISSIONARIES • Nez Perce asked people to come and teach about the “Black Book” • Marcus and Narcissa Whiteman went • Henry and Eliza Spalding also went • Crossed using the Oregon Trail Oregon Trail Nez Perce

  21. A Difficult Start Spaldings worked with the Nez Perce. Whitman’s worked with the Cayuse. Henry Spalding and Chief Joseph

  22. Nez Perce

  23. A Pioneer’s Paradise • Marcus Whitman convinced people that Oregon was a pioneer’s paradise • In 1842, Whitman went East • He brought a large group of settlers back with him on the Oregon Trail

  24. Missionaries’ Legacy Opened the West to settlement.

  25. The Pioneer Women • Most women were wives and mothers • Some were seeking husbands, homesteads, or other opportunities

  26. On the Trail • Journey lasted 4 to 6 months and covered 2,000 miles • Generally traveled 15 to 20 miles a day • Women cooked, washed clothes, and took care of children

  27. I Love Lucy

  28. Trail Hazards • Died from disease, accidents, and drowned crossing rivers

  29. Sweet Betsy from Pike

  30. Pioneer Women’s Legacy • Brought out strengths and weaknesses they didn’t know they had • Started schools, churches, libraries, literary societies, and charitable groups • Women in western states earned the right to vote 20 years before others and this was their greatest legacy

  31. Women’s Suffrage

  32. The Mormons • Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints • Founded in New York by Joseph Smith in 1830 • Persecuted for their religion • When Smith was killed, Brigham Young took over leadership and moved community to Utah Joseph Smith Brigham Young

  33. Mormon’s Legacy • First Americans to settle in Great Basin • Pioneered farming methods for the dry regions (dams, canals, irrigation ditches) • Salt Lake City became important stop for food and supplies • Planted their Mormon faith in the Utah desert

  34. The Forty-Niners • In 1848 gold was discovered • In 1849 thousands of gold seekers came from the East, Mexico, South America, Europe, Australia, China • Their routes took around the tip of South America, through the jungles of Panama, across the Pacific Ocean, or overland across America

  35. Life in the Mining Camps • Camps were rough places with no police • Digging for gold was hard and tedious work Eureka

  36. Forty- Niners’ Legacy • Indian population was reduced in size from warfare and disease • Many Californios lost their land • By 1850, California became first state in the West California gold country

  37. The Chinese • By 1852 more than 20,000 Chinese had come to California • At first the Chinese were welcome • As gold mining became more difficult the attitude towards the Chinese changed • Miners asked the American government to drive the foreigners out of the goldfields • In 1852, the Chinese had to pay a monthly fee for a license to mine

  38. The Chinese Stay • Americans bullied the Chinese • Hacked off their braids (queues) • Burned their shacks • Beat them • Some Chinese immigrants left the mines and opened restaurants, laundries, and stores • Some became farmers in California’s Central Valley

  39. Legacy of the Chinese Immigrants • Most came in search of gold and return to China rich, a few did • Their hard work, energy, and skills benefited California • Brought with them the arts, tastes, scents, and sounds of an old and rich culture Koi pond New Year’s celebration Pottery