What is HIV-AIDS? • http://www.who.int/topics/hiv_aids/en/
HIV prevalence • http://www.unaids.org/globalreport/HIV_prevalence_map.htm
Social determinants • Decades long political conflicts • Displaces masses • Extreme poverty • Mobility • Neo-liberal freer markets
Gender inequalities • Literacy rate • Low wages (in informal sector) • Pol Pot killed many men, so women need to do a lot of hard work
Example: garment industry The nature of the garment industry means that employees can easily be fired (kicked out of factories). Without jobs women become vulnerable and might end up in brothels.
Furthermore, female garment workers are often considered to be bad girls in their home villages. Many fiancés in villages do not want to marry their girlfriends living in the cities once they know that their girlfriends work in garment factories and are free to meet other men.
The political economy aspect As Cambodia is a very poor country, the Cambodian government does not crack down on sex tourism, because sex tourism means money. Thus, as the government does not limit the demand, vulnerable women and children keep filling (are forced to) the supply side.
Unfortunately… Thailand does not have a better track record. Look at what is going on in Bangkok, Pattaya, Phuket and Koh Samui.
Problems in the health care system • Anti HIV/AIDS programmes are mostly externally funded • External funding is temporarily and non secure • A lack of coordination among IOs and NGOs • Poverty prevents access to health care • Corruption
Conclusion “This study argues that trade liberalization, as one of the social determinants of the epidemic, helps create the necessary context and conditions for the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cambodia”
Freer markets… • Have led to increasing mobility, gender inequality and poverty • Have led to more difficult access to education, health and social welfare systems for poor women and girls.
Do you remember the Production Possibilities Frontier?If not, have a look at Principles of Economics
Most developed countries use about 6 or 7% of GDP for health. So all countries need to improve their spending on hospitals, the pharmaceutical industry, education of doctors and nurses, care of babies and old people, etc. etc!